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Leadership, Power, Influence, and Politics in Project Management

TCM 710 – Project Leadership Overview of Chapter 7 – Volume 2
Verma, Vijay . The Human Aspects of Project Management – Human Resource Skills for the Project Manager, Volume Two. Upper Darby, PA: Project Management Institute.

Leadership and Project Management • Leadership traits. skills and principles ▫ Traits       Flexibility -Consciousness of social environment Ambition -Creativity Intelligence -Persistence Decisiveness -Energy Tolerance for Stress Willingness to take responsibility ▫ Skills  Conceptual -Communication  Social -Organizational (administrative)  Diplomacy Page 212 .

seek self-improvement  Know your people and look after them  Communicate effectively. encourage new ideas  Give positive feedback and recognition  Seek responsibility and accept accountability Page 213 .Leadership and Project Management • Leadership traits. skills and principles ▫ Principles  Have a visions and the courage & commitment to make it a reality  Develop technical proficiency  Know yourself. keep people informed  Emphasize long-term productivity  Encourage teamwork and participation  Make sound. timely decisions  Empower team members  Match skills with resources  Listen effectively.

and increasing team members’ desire to control their own behavior Page 213 . discovering or creating opportunities.Leadership and Project Management • Theories and models of leadership ▫ Leadership theories/approaches ▫ The traits approach  Focuses on leaders influencing team members to accomplish goals  Emphasizes that the personal attributes of successful leaders are correlated to certain abilities. skills and personality characteristics  Emphasizes leaders’ actions instead of their personal traits  Emphasize the importance of the situation  Based on the cause/effect relationship ▫ The behavioral approach ▫ The contingency approach ▫ The attributional theory of leadership ▫ The charismatic leadership theory  Concentrates on developing a common vision.

Leadership and Project Management • Theories and models of leadership ▫ Contingency models of leadership  Fiedler’s contingency model: relates performance to the leader’s motivational system and the degree to which the leader controls and influences the situation  Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model: based on the amount of relationship (supportive) and task (directive) behavior that a leader provides in a situation  House’s path-goal model: based on the expectancy theory of motivation. suggests that effective leaders should try to enhance employee’s satisfaction with their jobs and increase their performance level  Vroom and Jago leadership model: focuses on the roles leaders play in making decisions and provides a set of rules that can help a manager identify which leadership styles to avoid in a given situation when the choice of style might reduce the effectiveness of the team or of a particular decision Page 215 .

Act and Deliver ▫ Leader or manager? Is there a difference?  Management covers both non-behavioral and behavioral issues  Leadership focuses mainly on behavioral ▫ Leadership and the project life cycle  Phase 1 & 2 = More leadership  Phase 3 & 4 = More management ▫ Leadership and team development  An effective leader is a “social architect” who recognizes the interaction between behavioral and organizational variables. can create a participative environment. Encourage. and can minimize dysfunctional conflict among team members Page 219 .Leadership and Project Management • Leadership in a project environment ▫ The ability to get things done well through others  LEAD = Listen.

Leadership and Project Management • Important skills for project leadership ▫ Enthusiasm and energy ▫ Decision making ▫ Tolerance for ambiguity and change  Manage in an unstructured environment ▫ Vision ▫ Application of project management process ▫ Effective team development  Able to quickly develop a cohesive team ▫ Interpersonal skills  People-oriented ▫ Conceptual skills  Ability to see the big picture Page 228 .

leadership and control • Sources of Power ▫ Reward Power ▫ Power – ability to get other to do what you want ▫ Authority – formal power given due to position  Positive consequences or outcomes  Coercive. refers to negative consequences  Earned/personal power ▫ Punishment Power ▫ Expert Power ▫ Legitimate/title power  Formal authority ▫ Information Power ▫ Persuasion/Charismatic Power ▫ Contacts/Network Power  networking Page 231  Practical form of power .Power and Influence in Project Management • Power vs Influence.

Power and Influence in Project Management • The project manager and power ▫ Total power of a project manager  Total Power= Position Power + Personal Power  Position power – legitimate power. derived from the organizational position  Personal power – derived from personality. knowledge and expertise of the project manager ▫ Increasing total power  PM’s can increase power by increasing either position or personal power ▫ Balancing the power  Important to understand managerial relationships in a project and achieve a proper balance in power to ensure smooth success of a project Page 194 .

arbitrators) as needed Ensure top management support Use strategic instruments Build a team Develop personal power • Managing politics at the project level .Power and Politics • Managing politics at the upper management level ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Page 239 Follow management hierarchy Appoint a project sponsor or director Use a steering committee or project council Protect yourself and your team Engage outside facilitators in developing strategies Engage in experts (lobbyists.