Rectifiers
(Converting AC to DC)
41 Introduction
The average current in AC source is zero
in the fullwave rectifier, thus avoiding problems
associated with nonzero average source currents,
particularly in transformers.
The output of the fullwave rectifier has inherently
less ripple than the halfwave rectifier.
Uncontrolled and controlled singlephase and three
phase fullwave converters used as rectifiers are
analyzed.
Fig. Centertapped Transformer
Rectifier
With electrical isolation, only
one diode voltage drop between
the source and load, suitable for
lowvoltage, highcurrent applications
42 Singlephase fullwave rectifiers
Fig. 41 Bridge rectifier：
The lower peak diode voltage make it more suitable
for highvoltage applications.
Resistive load：
0
sin , 0
( )
sin , 2
Vm t t
v t
Vm t t
e e t
e
e t e t
s s
¦
=
´
s s
¹
0
1
( ) sin( ) ( ) 2
m
o m
V
V avg V t d t
t
e e
t
t
= =
}
2
( )
( )
o m
o
V V
I avg
R R t
= =
m
I
2
rms
I =
Power absorbed by the load resistor：
2
R rms
P I R =
power factor ：Pf=1
RL load： Fig
Fig. (a) Bridge rectifier with RL load
(b) Voltages and Current
(c) Diode and source when the
inductance is large and the
current nearly constant
Resistive load：
0
5
6
6
1
1
5
2
2
2 6
5
6 2 2
6
6
sin , 5
6 6
( )
sin , 5 3
3 2
1
3 3
( ) sin( ) ( ) 0.827 0.477
2
2
3
3
1 sin(2 )
( ) sin ( ) ( )
2
4 2
3
0.707 1.
m
m
m
m
m
o m m Lm
o
m
V t t
v t
V t t
V
V avg V t d t V V
V
t
V rms V t d t t
V
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t
e e
e
t t
e e
e e
t
t
e
e e e
t
t
¦
s s
¦
=
´
s s
¦
¹
= = = =
(
(
 
(
(
= = ÷

(
(
\ .
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
= =
}
}
22
Lm
V
( ) 0.627
( )
o m
o
V avg V
I avg
R R
= =
m
I
2
rms
I =
Power absorbed by the load resistor：
2
R rms
P I R =
power factor ：Pf=1
Voltages across the diodes
V
D1
and V
D2
Threephase rectifiers
Resistive load :
Fig. Three phase full bridge rectifier
Resistive load：
0
3
0
1
1
2
2
2 3
3 2 2
0
0
sin , 0
3
( )
2
sin ,
3 3
1
3
( ) sin( ) ( ) 0.955
3
3
1 sin(2 )
( ) sin ( ) ( )
2 2
3
0.707 1.22
m
m
Lm
Lm
Lm
o Lm Lm
L
o L
m Lm
V t t
v t
V t t
V
V avg V t d t V
V
t
V rms V t d t t
V V
t
t
t
t
e e
e
t t
e e
e e
t
t
e
e e e
t
t
¦
s s
¦
=
´
s s
¦
¹
= = =
(
(
 
(
(
= = ÷

(
(
\ .
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
= =
}
}
( ) 0.627
( )
o m
o
V avg V
I avg
R R
= =
m
I
2
rms
I =
Power absorbed by the load resistor：
2
R rms
P I R =
power factor ：Pf=1
A transition of the highest linetoline voltage must take place
every
.
Because of the six transitions that occur for each period
of the source voltage, the circuit is called a sixpulse
rectifier.
Diode turn on in the sequence 1,2,3,4,5,6,1,..
0 0
60 6 / 360 =
¸
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
2 5
6 3
4 1
D D c
D D b
D D a
i i i
i i i
i i i
Each diode conducts onethird of the time, resulting in
avg o avg D
I I
, ,
3
1
=
rms o rms D
I I
, ,
3
1
=
rms o rms S
I I
, ,
3
2
=
Apparent power from the threephase source is
rms , S rms , L L
I V S
÷
= 3
... , , , n ,
) n (
V
V
V .
V
) wt ( wtd sin V
/
V
) t nw cos( V Vo ) t ( v
L L , m
n
L L , m
L L , m
/
/
L L , m
.. , , n
n
18 12 6
1
6
95 0
3
3
1
2
3 2
3
0
0
18 12 6
0
=
÷ t
=
=
t
=
t
=
t + + =
÷
÷
÷
t
t
÷
·
=
}
¿
Since the output voltage is periodic with period 1/6 of the ac
supply voltage, the harmonics in the output are of order 6kω,
k=1,2,3,…
Adevantage：output is inherently like a dc voltage, and the high
frequency lowamplitude harmonics enable filters to be effective.
For a dc load current (constant I0)  Fig4.17
TwelvePulse rectifier
The purpose of the transformer connection is to introduce
phase shift between the source and bridge.
This results in inputs to two bridges which are
apart. The two bridge outputs are similar, but also shifted by
A ÷ Y
0
30
0
30
0
30
.
The delay angles for the bridge are typically the same.
, , ,
, ,
3 3 6
m L L m L L m L L
o o Y o
V V V
V V V
t t t
÷ ÷ ÷
A
= + = + =
The peak output of the twelvepulse converter occurs midway
between alternate peaks of the sixpulse converters. Adding the
voltages at that point gives
, , ,
2 cos(15 ) 1.932
o peak m L L m L L
V V V
÷ ÷
= ° =
Primary line voltages
Line voltages for secondary star Line voltages for secondary delta
Voltages across the diode D
1
7 /12
( )
5 /12
1
2
7 /12
2 2
( )
5 /12
1
sin . ( ) 0.988616
6
0.988616 1.932 1.91
1
sin . ( ) 0.988668
6
0.988616 1.932 1.9101
o Avg m m
mL L mL L
o rms m m
mL L mL L
V V t d t V
V V
V V t d t V
V V
t
t
t
t
e e
t
e e
t
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
= × =
(
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
= × =
}
}
Since a transition between conducting Diodes every ,
there are a total of 12 such transitions for each period of the
ac source. The output has harmonic frequencies which are multiple
of 12 times the source fre. (12k k=1,2,…)
30 / 6 t ° =