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# Full-wave And Three- Phase

Rectifiers
(Converting AC to DC)
4-1 Introduction

 The average current in AC source is zero
in the full-wave rectifier, thus avoiding problems
associated with nonzero average source currents,
particularly in transformers.
 The output of the full-wave rectifier has inherently
less ripple than the half-wave rectifier.
 Uncontrolled and controlled single-phase and three-
phase full-wave converters used as rectifiers are
analyzed.
Fig. Center-tapped Transformer
Rectifier

With electrical isolation, only
one diode voltage drop between
the source and load, suitable for
low-voltage, high-current applications
4-2 Single-phase full-wave rectifiers

Fig. 4-1 Bridge rectifier：

The lower peak diode voltage make it more suitable
for high-voltage applications.

0
sin , 0
( )
sin , 2
Vm t t
v t
Vm t t
e e t
e
e t e t
s s
¦
=
´
s s
¹

0
1
( ) sin( ) ( ) 2
m
o m
V
V avg V t d t
t
e e
t
t
= =
}
2
( )
( )
o m
o
V V
I avg
R R t
= =

m
I
2
rms
I =
Power absorbed by the load resistor：
2
R rms
P I R =
power factor ：Pf=1

Fig. (a) Bridge rectifier with R-L load
(b) Voltages and Current
(c) Diode and source when the
inductance is large and the
current nearly constant

0
5
6
6
1
1
5
2
2
2 6
5
6 2 2
6
6
sin , 5
6 6
( )
sin , 5 3
3 2
1
3 3
( ) sin( ) ( ) 0.827 0.477
2
2
3
3
1 sin(2 )
( ) sin ( ) ( )
2
4 2
3
0.707 1.
m
m
m
m
m
o m m Lm
o
m
V t t
v t
V t t
V
V avg V t d t V V
V
t
V rms V t d t t
V
t
t
t
t
t
t
t t
e e
e
t t
e e
e e
t
t
e
e e e
t
t
¦
s s
¦
=
´
s s
¦
¹
= = = =
(
(
| |
(
(
= = ÷
|
(
(
\ .
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
= =
}
}
22
Lm
V

( ) 0.627
( )
o m
o
V avg V
I avg
R R
= =

m
I
2
rms
I =
Power absorbed by the load resistor：
2
R rms
P I R =
power factor ：Pf=1

Voltages across the diodes
V
D1
and V
D2
Three-phase rectifiers

Fig. Three phase full bridge rectifier

0
3
0
1
1
2
2
2 3
3 2 2
0
0
sin , 0
3
( )
2
sin ,
3 3
1
3
( ) sin( ) ( ) 0.955
3
3
1 sin(2 )
( ) sin ( ) ( )
2 2
3
0.707 1.22
m
m
Lm
Lm
Lm
o Lm Lm
L
o L
m Lm
V t t
v t
V t t
V
V avg V t d t V
V
t
V rms V t d t t
V V
t
t
t
t
e e
e
t t
e e
e e
t
t
e
e e e
t
t
¦
s s
¦
=
´
s s
¦
¹
= = =
(
(
| |
(
(
= = ÷
|
(
(
\ .
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
= =
}
}

( ) 0.627
( )
o m
o
V avg V
I avg
R R
= =

m
I
2
rms
I =
Power absorbed by the load resistor：
2
R rms
P I R =
power factor ：Pf=1

A transition of the highest line-to-line voltage must take place
every
.
Because of the six transitions that occur for each period
of the source voltage, the circuit is called a six-pulse
rectifier.
Diode turn on in the sequence 1,2,3,4,5,6,1,..
0 0
60 6 / 360 =

¸

÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
2 5
6 3
4 1
D D c
D D b
D D a
i i i
i i i
i i i
Each diode conducts one-third of the time, resulting in
avg o avg D
I I
, ,
3
1
=

rms o rms D
I I
, ,
3
1
=

rms o rms S
I I
, ,
3
2
=
Apparent power from the three-phase source is
rms , S rms , L L
I V S
÷
= 3
... , , , n ,
) n (
V
V
V .
V
) wt ( wtd sin V
/
V
) t nw cos( V Vo ) t ( v
L L , m
n
L L , m
L L , m
/
/
L L , m
.. , , n
n
18 12 6
1
6
95 0
3
3
1
2
3 2
3
0
0
18 12 6
0
=
÷ t
=
=
t
=
t
=
t + + =
÷
÷
÷
t
t
÷
·
=
}
¿
Since the output voltage is periodic with period 1/6 of the ac
supply voltage, the harmonics in the output are of order 6kω,
k=1,2,3,…

Adevantage：output is inherently like a dc voltage, and the high-
frequency low-amplitude harmonics enable filters to be effective.
For a dc load current (constant I0) --- Fig4.17
Twelve-Pulse rectifier
The purpose of the transformer connection is to introduce
phase shift between the source and bridge.
This results in inputs to two bridges which are
apart. The two bridge outputs are similar, but also shifted by

A ÷ Y
0
30

0
30
0
30
.
The delay angles for the bridge are typically the same.

, , ,
, ,
3 3 6
m L L m L L m L L
o o Y o
V V V
V V V
t t t
÷ ÷ ÷
A
= + = + =
The peak output of the twelve-pulse converter occurs midway
between alternate peaks of the six-pulse converters. Adding the
voltages at that point gives

, , ,
2 cos(15 ) 1.932
o peak m L L m L L
V V V
÷ ÷
= ° =
Primary line voltages
Line voltages for secondary star Line voltages for secondary delta
Voltages across the diode D
1
7 /12
( )
5 /12
1
2
7 /12
2 2
( )
5 /12
1
sin . ( ) 0.988616
6
0.988616 1.932 1.91
1
sin . ( ) 0.988668
6
0.988616 1.932 1.9101
o Avg m m
mL L mL L
o rms m m
mL L mL L
V V t d t V
V V
V V t d t V
V V
t
t
t
t
e e
t
e e
t
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
= × =
(
(
= =
(
¸ ¸
= × =
}
}
Since a transition between conducting Diodes every ,
there are a total of 12 such transitions for each period of the
ac source. The output has harmonic frequencies which are multiple
of 12 times the source fre. (12k k=1,2,…)

30 / 6 t ° =