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CHAPTER 3
RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Working Cycle & p-v Diagram
4.3 Indicated Power and Work
4.4 Conditions for Minimum Work
4.5 Mechanical Efficiency
4.6 Isothermal Efficiency
4.7 Clearance Volume
4.8 Volumetric Efficiency
4.9 Multistage Compressor

2
4.1 INTRODUCTION
 Compressors uses mechanical work to take an amount of fluid
and deliver it at a required pressure
 An efficient compressor increases pressure with minimum work
 The amount of fluid is limited by the volume of the compressor
cylinder which is fixed
 The reciprocating compressor operates in a cyclic manner
 The properties of the working fluid at inlet and outlet are average
values
3
Induction
valve
Inlet
Delivery
valve
Piston
Connecting
rod
Crank
case
Crank
Outlet
Schematic Layout
 A compressor consist of:
 crank case encloses the
compression volume
 crank shaft rotates the crank
 piston moves through the cylinder
during each cycle
 crank and connecting rod connects
the crank with the piston
 spring loaded induction and delivery
valves
 cylinder where piston travels
 The crank shaft is usually driven by an
electric motor

Basic Components of a Reciprocating
Compressor
4
1. Air intake,
2. Compressor pump,
3.Outlet,
4. Drive belt,
5. Motor,
6. Control switch,
7. Relief valve,
8. Pressure gauge,
9. Manifold,
10. Regulator,
11. Supply line,
12. Air tank,
13. Water drain,
5
4.2 WORKING CYCLE & THE p-V DIAGRAM
p
2

0 f e
d
c
b
a
v
p
p
1

v
2
v
1

Delivery
valve
Induction
valve
 (d – a): Induction (intake)
 Induction valve opens
 Air is induced into the cylinder
 Volume and mass increases
 Pressure and temperature is constant
during this process

 (a – b): Compression
 Inlet valve closes
 Piston compresses air
 Pressure rises until P
2
at (b)
 Temperature also increases

 (b – c): Delivery
 Delivery valve opens
 High pressure air is delivered
 Pressure and temperature is constant
during this process

 Compression process is reversible
polytropic and follows the law pV
n
= C
6
4.3 WORK & INDICATED POWER
 The work done on air for one cycle is the area in the graph (area abcd)
 Considering a polytropic process which follows the gas law PV
n
=
constant
 Work for polytropic process is given by:

gas a of index polytropic
1
1 1 2 2
=
÷
÷
=
n
where
n
v p v p
W
in
P
2

0
f
e
d
c
b
a
V
p
P
1

7
 Work input per cycle
( )
( )
a b
a b a b
a b
a b
in
V p V p
n
n
n
v p n v p n v p V p
V p V p
n
V p V p
cycle
W
1 2
1 2 1 2
1 2
1 2
1
1
) 1 ( ) 1 (
1
ad0f area bc0e area abef area
abcd area
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
=
÷ +
÷
÷
=
÷ + =
=
P
2

0
f
e
d
c
b
a
V
p
P
1

( )
( )
1 2
1 2
in
2 2 1 1
1
1
W
cycle per input work So,
and
T T mR
n
n
mRT mRT
n
n
cycle
mRT V p mRT V p Since
b a
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
=
= =
( )
R.p.m
and where
1
Power Indicated
1 2
=
× =
÷
÷
=
-
N
m N m
T T R m
n
n
IP

8
EXAMPLE 4.1
 A single stage reciprocating compressor operates by inducing
1m
3
/min of air at 1.013 bar and 15
o
C and delivers it at 7bar.
Assume the compression process being polytropic and the
polytropic index is 1.35. Calculate:
i. Mass of air delivered per minute
ii. Indicated power
SOLUTION
RT m V p


= i. Mass of air delivered per minute can be determine using
( )
( ) 273 15 287 . 0
1 100 013 . 1
+ ×
× ×
= m

min
23 . 1
kg
=
RT
V p
m


= so
9
ii. Indicated power can be determine using formula ( )
1 2
1
IP T T R m
n
n
÷
÷
=
-
• Find T
2
first using formula
n
n
P
P
T
T
1
1
2
1
2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
35 . 1
1 35 . 1
2
013 . 1
7
288
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= T K 4 . 475 =
• Indicated power; ( ) 288 4 . 475 287 . 0
60
23 . 1
1 35 . 1
35 . 1
IP ÷ × ×
÷
=
kW 25 . 4 Power Indicated =
7
0
2
1
V
P (bar)
1.013
10
4.4 CONDITIONS FOR MINIMUM WORK
 We know that the work done is equal to the area under the graph
 The smaller the area the lesser the work and the better the
compressor
 For reciprocating compressors, the pressure ratio is fixed, so the
height of p-v diagram is fixed
 The volume of cylinder is also fixed so the line d-a is fixed
 Therefore the area representing work depends the index n.
 For n = 1,
pV = constant (Isothermal)
 For n = ¸,
pV
¸
= constant (isentropic)
 So, the process can be polytropic, isothermal or isentropic
11
P
2

0 f e
d
c
b
1
a
V
p
P
1

b b
2

pV = C
pV
n
= C
pV
¸
= C
v
2
v
1

 pV =constant (isothermal)
 pV
¸
=constant (isentropic)
 pV
n
=constant (polytropic)

 From here it can be seen
that the isothermal process
is the best because it
requires minimum work

 So it is best that the gas
temperature is constant
throughout the compression
cycle
12
ISOTHERMAL WORK
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
2 1
1 1
2
1
2
1 1
ln
e temperatur constant the is T where
ln
From
ln ln
process isothermal for
ln
ad0f area - c0e b area ef ab area Work
1
1 1
p
p
RT m power Isothermal
p
p
mRT W
mRT pV
p
p
V p
p
p
V p W
V p V p
V p V p
p
p
V p
in
a b in
b a
a b b

=
=
=
= =
=
÷ + =
+ =
P
2

0 f e
d
c
b
1
a
V
p
P
1

pV = C
13
4.6 ISOTHERMAL EFFICIENCY
 Isothermal efficiency indicates isothermal work compared to the
indicated work.



EXAMPLE 4.2

Work Indicated
Work Isothermal
Efficiency Isothermal
isoth


, = q
 A single stage reciprocating compressor induce 1.23kg/min
of air at pressure 1.023 bar and temperature 23
o
C and
delivers it at 8.5 bar. If its polytropic index is 1.3,
determine:
i. Indicated power
ii. Isothermal power
iii. Isothermal efficiency
14
SOLUTION
 We know: kPa bar P
kg
m 3 . 102 @ 023 . 1 ,
min
23 . 1
1
= =

kPa bar P K C T
o
50 8 @ 5 . 8 and 296 @ 23
2 1
= =
i. Indicated power can be determine using ( )
1 2
1
IP T T R m
n
n
÷
÷
=
-
• Find T
2
first using formula
n
n
P
P
T
T
1
1
2
1
2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
2
3 . 102
850
293
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= T K 6 . 477 =
• Indicated power; ( ) 293 6 . 477 287 . 0
60
23 . 1
1 3 . 1
3 . 1
IP ÷ × ×
÷
=
kW 7 . 4 Power Indicated =
15
ii. Isothermal power can be determine using
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
-
2
1
ln W
p
p
RT m
isothermal

|
.
|

\
|
× × × =
3 . 102
850
ln 296 287 . 0
60
23 . 1
W
isothermal

kW 68 . 3 =
iii. Isothermal efficiency can be determine using
power indicated
power isothermal
=
isoth
q
7 . 4
68 . 3
IP
= =
isothermal
isoth
W

q % 78 @ 78 . 0 =
16
4.5 MECHANICAL EFFICIENCY, η
m
 Because there are moving mechanical parts in the compressor, it is
likely that losses will occur due to friction
 Therefore power required to drive the compressor is actually more
higher than the indicated power
 So there is need to measure the mechanical efficiency of the cycle
 Mechanical efficiency of the compressor is given by:
Power system
[Power required]
Compressor
[Indicated power]
>
power required
power indicated
=
m
q
17
• If Indicated power IP = 4.5 kW and mechanical efficiency, q
m
is 0.8
the shaft power would be:
kW
.
kW
625 . 5
8 0
5 . 4
power Shaft = =
18
4.7 CLEARANCE VOLUME (V
C
)
 In actual compressors, piston does not reach the top of wall of the
cylinder.
 Instead it reaches maximum stroke at a certain distance from the wall.
 The remaining volume of the cylinder where piston does not travel
through is call the clearance volume V
C
.
 The volume where the piston does travel through is called the swept
volume, V
S
.
 Purpose – to give freedom for working parts and space for valve
operations
19
Process
 After delivery at (c) (volume is
V
C
, pressure is p
2
and
temperature is T
2
). So, there are
some gas left in the cylinder
 When piston moves downward,
this gas expands according to
PV
n
= C until p
1
at (d).
 Then induction begins (d – a)
 Then gas is compressed
according to PV
n
= C
 Finally there is the delivery (b –
c)
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
e
f
p
2

p
1

PV
n
= C
PV
n
= C
P
v
V
C
= Clearance volume
V
S
= Swept volume
20
 Because of the expansion of
gas remaining in the V
C
,
induced volume is reduced from
swept volume V
S
to (V
a
– V
d
)
which is the effective volume


 Mass or air per unit time


 Mass delivered per unit time =
mass induced per unit time



Effect of V
C

d a d a
V V V or V V V
  
÷ = ÷ =
d c b a
m m and m m
   
= =
d a c b
m m m m m
    
÷ = ÷ =
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
e
f
p
2

p
1

PV
n
= C
PV
n
= C
P
v
21
INDICATED WORK & INDICATED POWER FOR
COMPRESSOR WITH CLEARANCE VOLUME
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 2
1 2 1 2
1
1 1
power Indicated
cefd area - abef area abcd area
W
cycle per done Work
T T R m m
n
n
T T R m
n
n
T T R m
n
n
W
cycle
d a
d a
÷ ÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
=
= =
 
 

( )
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × =
|
.
|

\
|
× =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
= ÷
÷
=
= ÷
÷
min
min
1
1 1

1
1
2
1 1 2
kg
m m N m or
kg
m N m where
p
p
RT m
n
n
T T R m
n
n
W
t time ed per uni mass induc m m m because
d a
n
n
d a


 

  
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
e
f
p
2

p
1

PV
n
= C
PV
n
= C
P
v
22
 We see here that the work done per cycle and indicated power per unit mass
is the same whether with or without clearance
23
Double-acting Compressors
 A single-acting compressor completes one compression cycle with one revolution of
the crank
 A double-acting compressor completes two compression cycles with one revolution
of the crank
 So the mass induce per revolution is twice than a single acting where

Delivery Delivery
Induction Induction
| | ( ) | |
|
.
|

\
|
÷ × × =
|
.
|

\
|
× × =
min
2
min
2
kg
m m N m or
kg
m N m
d a
 
24
EXAMPLE 4.3
 A single stage, double-acting compressor is required to deliver 8m
3
/min of
air measured at pressure of 1.013 bar and 15
o
C. Delivery pressure is 6 bar
and crank speed is 300rpm. The clearance volume is 5% of swept volume
and the compression index is 1.3. Calculate
i. Swept volume, V
S

ii. Delivery temperature, T
2
iii. Indicated power
25
SOLUTION
 We know: rpm N bar P bar P K C T
o
300 and 6 ; 013 . 1 and 288 @ 15
2 1 1
= = = =
 Since it is double acting, per minute, it will
have 300 x 2 = 600 cycle that induces 8
m
3
. It means for one cycle it will induce;

3
0133 . 0
600
8
m V V
d a
= = ÷
i. Swept volume can be determine using the
information of the induced air volume per
cycle
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
6
1.013
PV
1.3
= C
PV
1.3
= C
P
v
c a s
V V V ÷ =
• From the diagram
s a s
V V V 05 . 0 ÷ =
s a
V V 05 . 1 = (1)
26
• From polytropic equation
n
c
n
d
V P V P
2 1
=
( )
3 . 1
1
1
1
2
013 . 1
6
05 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
n
c d
V
P
P
V V
s d
V V 196 . 0 =
(2)
• Insert (1) and (2) in equation
3
0133 . 0 m V V
d a
= ÷
( )
3
0133 . 0 196 . 0 05 . 1 m V
s
= ÷
litre 15.6 or 0156 . 0
3
m V
s
=
ii. Delivery temperature, T
2
can be determine using

n
n
P
P
T
T
1
1
2
1
2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
2
013 . 1
6
288
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= T C K
o
161.6 or 6 . 434 =
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
PV
1.3
= C
PV
1.3
= C
P
v
27
iii. Indicated power can be determine using

( )
1 2
1
IP T T R m
n
n
÷
÷
=
-
• First, find mass induce per cycle
( ) ( )
288 287 . 0
0133 . 0 100 013 . 1
1
1
×
× ×
=
÷
=
RT
V V P
m
d a
kg 0163 . 0 =
• Since it is double acting, m N m × × = 2

0163 . 0 300 2 × × =
min
78 . 9
kg
=
NOTE: we can straight away obtain using the value of m

min
8
3
m
V =

( )
288 287 . 0
8 100 013 . 1
1
1
×
× ×
= =
RT
V P
m


min
8 . 9
kg
=
( ) ( ) 288 2 . 434 287 . 0
60
78 . 9
1 3 . 1
3 . 1
1
IP
1 2
÷ × × ×
÷
= ÷
÷
=
-
T T R m
n
n
kW 64 . 29 IP =
28
4.5 VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY, η
v

 Volumetric efficiency is another definition to measure the
performance of a compressor.
 The are two ways how to define volumetric efficiency:
 1
st
definition:
The ratio of the actual induced mass (m
actual
) in the cylinder
with ideal induced mass at free air condition (m
ideal
). Free air
condition is basically the ambient condition

( )
1
1
RT
V V P
m
d a
actual
÷
=
and
o
s o
ideal
RT
V P
m =
Where P
o
is the ambient pressure
T
o
is the ambient temperature
29
 So by first definition,

( )
( )
s
d a
s
d a
v
V P
RT
RT
V V P
RT
V P
RT
V V P
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
×
÷
=
÷
= q
( )
1
0
0
1
T
T
P
P
V
V V
s
d a
v
× ×
÷
= q
 If assume

, and
1 1 o o
T T P P = =
( )
s
d a
v
V
V V ÷
= q
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
e
f
p
2

p
1

PV
n
= C
PV
n
= C
P
v
s
d
s
c
s
s
s
d c s
v
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V V V
÷ + =
÷ +
= q
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = 1 1 1 1
c
d
s
c
c
d
s
c
v
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
V
q
(1)
30
 Since

n
c
n
d
V P V P
2 1
=
n
c
d
n
c
d
P
P
V
V
P
P
V
V
1
1
2
1
2
therefore and
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
 Insert the above equation to equation (1) and we get

|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ = 1 1
1
1
2
n
s
c
v
P
P
V
V
q
NOTE:
The above equation is only true when P
o
=P
1
and T
o
=T
1
31
 2
nd
definition:
The ratio of the actual volume (V
actual
) in the cylinder that is
measured at free air condition with swept volume (V
s
)
VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY, η
v

( )
s
V
condition air free at
actual
v
V
= q
We know that actual mass induced is
( )
1
1
RT
V V P
m
d a
actual
÷
=
If we measure actual mass induced at free air condition, it will be
( )
o
actual o
actual
RT
V P
m =
32
 Combining the two mathematical definition, we get
( ) ( )
1
1
RT
V V P
RT
V P
d a
o
actual o
÷
=
( )
1
0
0
1
T
T
P
P
V V V
d a actual
× × ÷ =
(1)
( )
s
V
condition air free at
actual
v
V
= q
 Insert equation (1) into
( )
1
0
0
1
T
T
P
P
Vs
V V
d a
v
× ×
÷
= q
 Note that the equation above is the same the one in the first
definition.
33
FREE AIR DELIVERY (FAD)
 The actual volume of air induced or delivered that is measured at free
air temperature & pressure is called free air delivery (FAD).
 Looking back at, FAD is

( )
1
0
0
1
T
T
P
P
V V FAD V
d a actual
× × ÷ = =
Where P
o
is the ambient pressure
T
o
is the ambient temperature
 For a single acting compressor, if N rpm, FAD can be defined as

( ) N
T
T
P
P
V V FAD V
d a actual
× × × ÷ = =
1
0
0
1 
 For a double acting compressor,

( ) N
T
T
P
P
V V FAD V
d a actual
2
1
0
0
1
× × × ÷ = =

34
EXAMPLE 4.4
 A single stage, single-acting compressor delivers 3m
3
/min of air measured
at pressure of 1.014bar and 23
o
C. During induction, pressure and
temperature or air is 0.98 bar and 43
o
C respectively. Delivery pressure is
6.5 bar and crank speed is 358 rpm. The clearance volume is 5% of swept
volume and the compression index is 1.3. Calculate

i. Indicated power
ii. Volumetric efficiency
35
SOLUTION
 We know:
01.4kPa 1 @ 014 . 1 and 296 @ 23
0 0
bar P K C T
o
= =
8kPa 9 @ 98 . 0 and 16 3 @ 43
1 1
bar P K C T
o
= =
kPa 50 6 @ 5 . 6 and 358 N ,
min
3
2
3
bar P rpm
m
FAD = = =
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
6.5
0.98
PV
1.3
= C
PV
1.3
= C
P
v
i. Indicated power can be determine using
( )
1 2
1
IP T T R m
n
n
÷
÷
=
-
We know:
o
o
RT
FAD P
m
×
=
-
296 287 . 0
3 4 . 101
×
×
=
min
58 . 3
kg
=
T
2
can be determine using

n
n
P
P
T
T
1
1
2
1
2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
2
98 . 0
5 . 6
316
÷
|
.
|

\
|
= T K 489 =
36
( )
1 2
1
IP T T R m
n
n
÷
÷
=
-
( ) 316 489 287 . 0
60
58 . 3
1 3 . 1
3 . 1
÷ × ×
÷
= kW 84 . 12 =
ii. Volumetric efficiency can be determine using
s
@
V
FAD V
actual
v


= q
We know:
( )
1
1
RT
V V P
m
d a
 
÷
=
-
and
min
3 ,
min
58 . 3
3
m
FAD
kg
m = =

1
1
P
T R m
V V
d a
× ×
= ÷

 
98
316 287 . 0 58 . 3 × ×
=
min
31 . 3
3
m
=
Since N = 358 rpm,
358
31 . 3
= ÷
d a
V V
3
00925 . 0 m =
c a s
V V V ÷ =
From the diagram
c a s
V V V 05 . 0 ÷ =
s a
V V 05 . 1 = (1)
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
P
v
37
• From polytropic equation
n
c
n
d
V P V P
2 1
=
n
c d
P
P
V V
1
1
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s d
V V 214 . 0 =
(2)
• Insert (1) and (2) in equation
3
00925 . 0 m V V
d a
= ÷
( )
s
V 214 . 0 05 . 1 ÷
litre 11 or 011 . 0
3
m V
s
=
Since N = 358 rpm,
358 011 . 0 × =
s
V

min
938 . 3
3
m
=
s
V
@


FAD V
actual
v
= q
3.938
3
= % 76 @ 76 . 0 =
( )
3 . 1
1
98 . 0
5 . 6
05 . 0
|
.
|

\
|
=
s
V
3
00925 . 0 m =
V
C
V
S

a
b c
d
P
v
P
2
P
1
38
4.6 MULTI-STAGING COMPRESSOR
• When delivery pressure is
increased to a higher value,
several weaknesses were
found:
1. Induce volume will become
lesser
2. Increase in delivery
temperature
3. Decrease of volumetric
efficiency (FAD becomes lesser
were else no change in Vs)

V
C
V
S
P

V

p
1
p
2
p
3
p
4
d

d’

d”

b

b’

b”

c

c’

c”

a

• To overcome those matter,
multi-staging compressor is
introduced
39
P
i
,T
b
P
i
,T
a
P
2
,T
c
P
1
,T
a

Coolant in Coolant out
Intercooler
LP
Compressor
HP Compressor
 It consist of more than one compressor where the air passes through
an intercooler before entering the next compressor.
 The size of the next compressor is smaller to compromise Vs.
 In the intercooler, heat is transferred to the surrounding and
temperature will decreased. It will be brought back to its inlet
temperature (before induction process).
 It is assumed that all compressors will have the same polytropic
index.
40
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p
V
Vs
P2
Pi
P1
LP CPMPRESSOR
HP
CPMPRESSOR
a-b : PV
n
=C compression
b-e : Q from air to surrounding
Temperature drops from T
b
to T
e
.
Ideally T
e
=T
a
e-f : PV
n
=C compression
Advantages:
a. Slight increase in temperature
b. Increase in volumetric efficiency
c. Saving in work ( shaded area)
***NOTES:
a. Since no mass is allow to escape during its travel, m
LP
= m
HP
b. If pressure ratio and the ratio of V
c
/V
s
is the same, volumetric efficiency
for both compressor is the same.

41
EXAMPLE 4.5
 In a single acting, two-stage reciprocating air compressor, 4.5 kg/min of air
is compressed from 1.013 bar and 15
o
C surrounding conditions through a
pressure ratio of 9 to 1. Both stages have the same pressure ratio, and the
law of compression and expansion in both stages is PV
1.3
=C. The clearence
volume of both stages are 5% of their respective swept volumes and it runs
at 300 rpm. If intercooling is complete, calculate:

i. Indicated power
ii. Volumetric efficiency
iii. Cylinder swept volumes required.
42
SOLUTION
 We know:
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p(bar)
V
Vs
P2
Pi
1.013
LP COMPRESSOR
HP
COMPRESSOR
3 . 1 and 288 300
min
5 4
1
= = = = n K rpm,T , N
kg
. m

i. Indicated power can be determine using

( ) ( ) LP HP
IP IP IP + =
e
i
i
T T
P
P
P
P
P
P
= = =
1
1
2
1
2
and , 9
9
2
1 1
2
1
2
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
= × =
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
P
i i
i
3 9
1
= =
P
P
i
( )
( )
1
1
T T R m
n
n
IP
i LP
÷ × ×
÷
=

43
n
n
i i
P
P
T
T
1
1 1
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
( )
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
3 288
÷
=
i
T
K 371 =
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p(bar)
V
Vs
P2
Pi
1.013
LP COMPRESSOR
HP
COMPRESSOR
( )
( )
1
1
T T R m
n
n
IP
i LP
÷ × ×
÷
=

( )
( ) 288 371 287 . 0
60
5 . 4
1 3 . 1
3 . 1
÷ ×
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
=
LP
IP kW 74 . 7 =
( )
( )
e HP
T T R m
n
n
IP ÷ × ×
÷
=
2
1

n
n
i e
P
P
T
T
1
2 2
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
( )
3 . 1
1 3 . 1
3 288
÷
=
i
T
K 371 =
1
and T T
e
=
( )
( )
e HP
T T R m
n
n
IP ÷ × ×
÷
=
2
1

( ) 288 371 287 . 0
60
5 . 4
1 3 . 1
3 . 1
÷ ×
|
.
|

\
|
×
÷
=
kW 74 . 7 =
( ) ( ) LP HP
IP IP IP + =
2 74 . 7 × = kW 48 . 15 =
44
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p(bar)
V
Vs
P2
Pi
1.013
LP COMPRESSOR
HP
COMPRESSOR
ii. Since pressure ratio for and the ratio of
Vc:Vs is the same for both stages,

( ) ( ) HP v LP v
q q =
We know that air is induced at free air
condition, so
o o
T T P P = =
1 1
and
( ) ( )
Vs
V V
T
T
P
P
Vs
V V
d a d a
v
÷
= × ×
÷
=
1
0
0
1
q
We know
N
m
cycle
m

=
300
5 . 4
= kg 015 . 0 =
( )
1
1
P
T R m
V V
d a
× ×
= ÷
100 013 . 1
288 287 . 0 015 . 0
×
× ×
=
3
01224 . 0 m =
45
c a s
V V V ÷ =
From the diagram
c a s
V V V 05 . 0 ÷ =
s a
V V 05 . 1 = (1)
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p(bar)
V
Vs
P2
Pi
1.013
LP COMPRESSOR
HP
COMPRESSOR
From polytropic equation
n
c i
n
d
V P V P =
1
n
i
c d
P
P
V V
1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
s d
V V 1164 . 0 =
(2)
Insert (1) and (2) in equation
3
01224 . 0 m V V
d a
= ÷
( )
s
V 1164 . 0 05 . 1 ÷
( )
litres m V
LP s
13 or 013 . 0
3
=
( )( )
3 . 1
1
3 05 . 0
s
V =
3
01224 . 0 m =
( )
Vs
V V
d a
v
÷
= q
013 . 0
01224 . 0
= % 94 or 94 . 0 =
46
ii. We already calculated V
s
for LP
compressor. Since volumetric efficiency
for both stages is the same
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p(bar)
V
Vs
P2
Pi
1.013
LP COMPRESSOR
HP
COMPRESSOR
( )
94 . 0 =
÷
=
Vs
V V
h e
v
q
We know
( ) ( )
bar P P m m
i HP LP
039 . 3 3 and
1
= × = =
( )
i
e
h e
P
T R m
V V
× ×
= ÷
100 039 . 3
288 287 . 0 015 . 0
×
× ×
=
3
00408 . 0 m =
1
T T
e
=
( )
v
h e
s
V V
V
q
÷
=
94 . 0
00408 . 0
= litres m 34 . 4 or 00434 . 0
3
=
***NOTES:
Easier steps are shown in McConkey page 399-400
47
IDEAL INTERMEDIATE PRESSURE
 The value chosen for the intermediate pressure p
i
influences the work
to be done on the air and its distribution between the stages.
 Minimum power happen when

0 =
i
dP
W d

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
+
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷ ÷
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
n
n
i
e
n
n
i
P
P
RT m
n
n
P
P
RT m
n
n
W
 

We know
1
T T
e
=
a
b
e
f
g
c h
d
Vc
p(bar)
V
Vs
P2
Pi
1.013
LP COMPRESSOR
HP
COMPRESSOR
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷ ÷
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
n
n
i
n
n
i
P
P
P
P
RT m
n
n
W


( )
( )
0
1 2 1
2 1
=
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
÷ ÷
n
n
i
n
n
i
P P P
dP
W d

48
( )
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
÷ ÷
n
n
i
n
n
P P P
1 2 1
2 1
i
i
P
P
P
P
2
1
= ( )
2
2 1 i
P P P =
or (pressure ratio is the same for each stage)
 The total minimum work can be written as

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
=
÷ ÷
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
n
n
i
n
n
i
P
P
P
P
RT m
n
n
W


¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
× =
÷
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
n
n
P
P
RT m
n
n
W


 So for compressor with Z stages, total minimum work is

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
× =
÷
1
1
1
1
2
1
Zn
n
P
P
RT m
n
n
Z W


49
EXAMPLE 4.6
 A three stage, single acting compressor running in an atmosphere at 1.013
bar and 15
o
C has an FAD of 2.83 m
3
/min. The induced pressure and
temperature is 0.98 bar and 32
o
C respectively. The delivery pressure is 70
bar. Assuming complete intercooling, n =1.3 and that the machine is design
for minimum work, calculate the indicated power required.

SOLUTION
0
0
RT
FAD P
m
×
=

( )
( ) 273 15 287 . 0
83 . 2 100 013 . 1
+ ×
× ×
=
min
47 . 3
kg
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
× =
÷
1
1
1
1
2
1
Zn
n
P
P
RT m
n
n
Z W


( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
|
.
|

\
|
×
|
.
|

\
|
÷
× =
÷
1
98 . 0
70
288 287 . 0
60
47 . 3
1 3 . 1
3 . 1
3
3 . 1 3
1 3 . 1
kW W 2 . 24 =