Chapter 2 Digital Image Fundamentals


Elements Visual Perception
retinal optic nerve choroid cornea Retinal vascular lens Iris Pipil

Structure of the Human Eye
• Cone Vision: photopoic ,bright-light vision • Rod Vision: scotopic or dim-light vision
Blinde spot Number of both cells per square meter degrees of Distance from vision Pyramidal cells Rod cells

Image Formation in the Eye

Graphical representation of the eye looking at a palm tree

The distance between the center of the lens and the retina (called the focal length) varies from approximately 17 mm to about 14 mm, as the refractive power of the lens increase from its minimum to its maximum. When the eye focuses on an object farther away than about 3 m, the lens exhibits its lowest refractive power. When the eye focuses on a nearby object, the lens is most strongly refractive.

Brightness adaptation and differential
Human visual system can adapt to light The scope of the intensity level is very wide. This map is a long line of representatives of the visual system can adapt to the light intensity range. Dark range of appropriate visual are 106. Dark Vision by relevance to the appropriate visual-liang gradual transition, the transition range Fitness dark vision from 0.001 to about 0.1mL (in logarithmic scale for the -3 toLiang appropriate visual figure to draw the curve 1mL), of the scope of adaptation.

Stunning Limit

Subjective brightness Night vision value domain

Logarithm of light intensity

Adapt the scope of

• Brightness adaptation and differential
• Adaptation in different brightness level, the human eye in different resolution, as shown, I is the background light intensity, I is the light intensity changes, log ( I / I) called the Weber ratio, expressed strong resolution

Light intensity resolution than the typical Weber

Mach bands
Although the intensity of the stripes is constant, we actually perceive a brightness pattern that is strongly scalloped, especially near the boundaries . These seemingly scalloped bands are called Mach bands after Ernst Mach.

Perceived brightness

Actual brightness

Simultaneous contrast

Simultaneous contrast is related to the fact that a region’s perceived brightness does not depend simply on its intensity, as Fig.2.8 demonstrates. All the squares have exactly the same intensity. However, they appear to the eye to become darker as the background gets lighter.

Optical illusions

Color Vision I
• 3 primary colors-----Red、Green and Blue • The CIE designated in 1931 the following specific wavelength values to the three primary colors: blue = 435.8 nm, green = 546.1 nm, and red = 700 nm. • 3 complementary color: Magenta、Cyan、 Yellow

Color Vision II

Additive color mixing (left)and Subtractive color mixing (right)

Color Vision III
• 3 basic characters:
– Intensity – Hue – Saturation

• We can demonstrate color with the colorcarrying information (hue and saturation) in a color image.

Image Digitizer

• Digitized images related concepts
• Pixel is the basic unit of the image (Pixel), are can no longer be divided into smaller units, which by many of the same size pixels along the horizontal direction and vertical direction by the uniform rows of matrix rows

Image resolution I
Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. We often describe the pixel resolution with the set of two positive integer numbers, where the first number is the number of pixel columns (width) and the second is the number of pixel rows (height).

•Points or Pixels/cm


Image resolution II
• Higher resolution means more image detail.

resolution : high

resolution : low

Image resolution III
• Image resolution and spatial resolution
– Image resolution is the number of pixels in an image – Spatial resolution depends on properties of the system creating the image .

Pixel depth

Pixel depth refers to storage of each pixel used in the median, it is also used to measure the resolution of images. Decided to color image pixel depth of each pixel may have a few colors, or grayscale images to identify each pixel gray level possible.

True-color Image 、False-color image
• True-color is a method of representing and storing graphical image information (especially in computer processing) in an RGB color space such that a very large number of colors, shades, and hues can be displayed in an image, such as in high quality photographic images or complex graphics. • A false-color image is an image that depicts a subject in colors that differ from those a faithful full-color photograph would show, which need a color look-up table

Sampling and Quantization
• Sampling
– Digitizing the coordinate values is called sampling.

• Quantization
– Digitization of the light intensity at each pixel location is called quantization.

• The light intensities are sampled at equally spaced intervals. A larger sampling rate will create a larger number of pixel data and thus a better resolution.

• Digitizing the amplitude values.

How to form a binary image



Binary Image

How to form a grayscale image
Gray level 19 6

4 3 Sample column Pixel Digital image
Sample row alternation




Sample row Picture


Sample column alternation



Value array of grayscale image

Value array of grayscale image
125,153,158,157,127,70,103,120,129,144,144,150,150,147,150,160,165,160,164,165,167,175,175,166,133, 133,154,158,100,116,120, 97, 74, 54,74,118,146,148,150,145,157,164,157,158,162,165,171,155,115, 88, 155,163, 95,112,123,101,137,108, 81, 71, 63, 81,137,142,146,152,159,161,159,154,138, 81, 78, 84,114, 167, 69, 85, 59, 65, 43, 85, 34, 69, 78,104,101,117,132,134,149,160,165,158,143,114, 99, 57, 45, 51, 57, ・・・・・ ・・・・・ ・・・・・

How to form a color image I

How to form a color image II

R Quantization Analog image



G Quantization

Digital image

B Quantization

How to form a color image III
Value array of (R、G、 B) color image

(207,137,130) (220,179,163) (215,169,161) (210,179,172) (210,179,172) (207,154,146) (217,124,121) (226,144,133) (226,144,133) (224,137,124) (227,151,136) (227,151,136) (226,159,142) (227,151,136) (230,170,154) (231,178,163) (231,178,163) (231,178,163) (236,187,171) (236,187,171) (239,195,176) (239,195,176) (240,205,187) (239,195,176) (231,138,123) (217,124,121) (215,169,161) (216,179,170) (216,179,170) (207,137,120) (159, 51, 71) (189, 89,101) (216,111,110) (217,124,121) (227,151,136) (227,151,136) (226,159,142) (226,159,142) (237,159,135) (237,159,135) (231,178,163) (236,187,171) (231,178,163) (236,187,171) (236,187,171) (236,187,171) (239,195,176) (239,195,176) (236,187,171) (227,133,118) (213,142,135) (216,179,170) (221,184,170) (190, 89, 89) (204,109,113)

• Digital image data calculation method
• If the above principle can understand, then, we can easily calculate the digital image data. • Image data volume = image horizontal resolution × vertical resolution image pixels × depth / 8
• 1 with 16 million kinds of colors (True Color), 1280 * 1024 resolution of the digital image, in the not to carry out data compression, it is the amount of data are Solution: 16,000,000 kinds = 224 1280 * 1024 * 24 / 8 = 3.75MB

Sampling Resolution & the number of image

• Sampling resolution and to quantify the number of series and the relationship between image quality • Quantify the level of the more level images from the more abundant, gray-scale resolution of the higher Quality better, but large amounts of data; to quantify the less hierarchical, image-level due to the rich, gray Degree of low resolution, quality variation, there will be false contour phenomenon, but a small amount of data.

Numeric image equipment I
• Numeric camera • Videocon • Scanner

Numeric image equipment II
• • • • • Sampling aperture Image scanning part Light sensor Quantization equipment quantity Output memory

Image Digitizer Performance Evaluation Project

Item Spatial resolution

content Unit size can be sampled pixels. By the sampling aperture and the distance between the size and scope of the decision variable.

Gray (color) degrees resolution

Quantify the number of grades (bit depth), number of colors (color depth) Scanning apparatus permit the greatest Maps

Image Size

Measurement characteristics

Digitizer and quantified by measuring the actual physical parameters and accuracy

Scanning speed

Sampling data transmission speed Digitizer noise level (noise should be less than the contrast images)

Noise other Black and white / color, price, performance and so on