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Touch DisplayTouch Screen Mechanisms Involved

What is a touch screen?
• An electronic visual display that locates the coordinates of a users touch within display area
• Works independently of what is being displayed on screen


Brief History
• Invented by E.A. Johnson (Royal Radar Est.) around 1965 for air traffic control • HP-150 home computer using infrared technology in 1983

• 1993 Apple‟s Newton and IBM‟s Simon
• 2002 Microsoft‟s Windows XP Tablet

• 2007 Apple‟s iPhone (Multi-touch)

Multi-Touch Architecture • Touch screen sensor to sense touch • • • To determine location • Touch screen controller and driver • Signal to execute application • Operating system • Application Capable of sensing multiple simultaneous points Capable of delivering sets of simultaneous points to the OS Capable of forwarding multiple streams of moving points (and acting on a defined subset of them) Capable of decoding multiple streams of moving points and taking actions in response .

Embedded (capacitive) Camera-based & Infrared (all forms). Planar scatter detection Embedded (light-sensing) Vision-based Acoustic Pulse Recognition & Dispersive Signal Technology What’s Being Measured • • • • • Voltage Current Ultrasonic wave amplitude Change in capacitance Absence or reduction in light • • • • • • Presence of light Change in image Bending waves .One Reason Why There Are So Many Technologies Touch Technology • • • • • Resistive Surface capacitive Surface acoustic wave Projected capacitive.

Resistive Touch Screens • • • • Two layers of conductive material Touch creates contact between resistive layers completing circuit Voltage in circuit changes based on position Controller determines location based on voltages .

Why Resistive? • Advantages: – Cost-effective and low power Requirements – Activated by any object – Accurate • Disadvantages: – Polyester surface can be damaged – Only 75% light transmission – Lower endurance (~35 million touches) .

Capacitive Touch Screens • Glass panel with conductive layer (Indium Tin Oxide) • electrodes around the panel's edge distribute low voltage uniformly across the conductive layer creating a uniform electric field [2] .

• Self capacitance: .Projected Capacitive • It is of two types : self and mutual capacitance.

Self-capacitance electrode variations • Self capacitance • Multiple separate slots in a single layer • Each slot is scanned individually .

Mutual-capacitance principle No touch Touch .

Mutual capacitance example (Apple iPhone) .

Surface capacitance • Touch draws minute amount of current creating voltage drop • Coordinates of point of contact calculated by controller [2] .

Surface capacitance Scratch-resistant top coat Hard coat with AG Electrode pattern Conductive coating (ATO. ITO or TO) Glass Optional bottom shield (not shown) .

Why Capacitive? • Advantages: – – – – Durable surface material High endurance (~255 million touches) Very accurate Good optical quality • Disadvantages: – Triggered only by bare finger or active stylus – High cost .

Acoustic Wave Touch ScreensSurface Acoustic Wave • Surface consists of glass overlay with transmitting and receiving transducers .

[2] Projected variation of amplitude of ultrasonic waves with time and distance .

Acoustic Pulse Recognition • Plain glass sensor with 4 piezos on the edges • Table look-up of bending • wave samples (“acoustic touch signatures”) .

Acoustic Pulse Recognition .

Dispersive Signal Technology • Plain glass sensor with 4 piezos in the corners • Real-time analysis of bending waves in the glass (“time of flight” calculation) .

Why AWT? • Advantages: – Best optical quality – High surface durability and seal – Activated by multiple sources • Disadvantages: – Expensive – Contaminates on screen can cause false-touches .

Optical or Infrared Touch Screen Traditional infrared • Uses infrared LEDs and matching photo detectors • Touching screen interrupts LEDs [2] .

Waveguide Infrared • Principle .

Camera based optical .

The IR light travels via Total Internal Reflection within the substrate and is disturbed or scattered by any object touching the surface of the substrate.Planar Scatter Detection • Infrared (IR) light is injected in the sensor substrate from the edges. scattered light from a touch points is detected at the edge of the sensor substrate and used to calculate the touch. • • . The IR light is injected and analyzed.

Vision based • When the user comes into contact with the surface. since they can now pass through into the contact material and the reflection is no longer total at that point. This frustrated light is scattered downwards towards an infrared webcam. the light rays are frustrated. capable of picking these „blobs‟ up. and relaying them to tracking software. • .

Infrared/Optical Touch Screens – Advantages: • • • • High optical clarity Durable surface Supports multi-touch Can scale to large sizes – Disadvantages: • Expensive • Cameras can get out of alignment .

Touch Screen Techniquescomparison Technology Major Advantage Multi-touch Touch sensitivity Low cost Durability Any touch-object Any touch-object Reliability Low cost Scalability Flush surface Multi-touch Integration Major Flaw Projected Capacitive Surface Capacitive Analog Resistive Surface Acoustic Wave Acoustic Pulse Recognition Dispersive Signal Technology Traditional Infrared Waveguide Infrared Camera-Based Optical Planar Scatter Detection Vision-Based LCD In-Cell Finger-only High drift Low durability Soft touch object No touch & hold No touch & hold High cost Contamination Profile height High cost Rear projection Sensitivity .

Applications •Trade show displays •Museum / tourism displays •Point-of-sale terminals •Restaurant systems •Employee time clocks •Industrial process controls •World Wide Web access kiosks •Home automation systems •Casino and other gaming systems •Computer access for the physically disabled .

co-founder of a startup called Qeexo. The new LCD technology patent will allow Apple to fuse touch sensors into display circuitry. detect electrical interference and reduce false can withstand technology called FingerSense that adds a tiny acoustic sensor inside a smartphone to listen for and measure the vibrations of the object that touches it.Latest in touch technology • Freescale is announcing a new industrial touch sensing technology that'll even sense your swipes and prods through a film of water. Integration can further include eliminating redundant structures and/or finding dual purposes • • • . Chris Harrison. a change that could have a dramatic effect on how thin smart phones or tablets can get.