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DOCTORAL TALK SERIES1: WRITING a Good PhD Proposal

Prof. Madya Dr. Hasan Fauzi, CSR

ON BECOMING A RESEARCH STUDENT
Be aware that in doctoral education you are under your own management and have the responsibility for determining what is required as well as for carrying it out.  You will experience periods of self-doubt which you must come through with the clear aim of achieving your PhD.  PhD  “Permanent Head Damage”???????

THE NATURE OF DOCTORAL EDUCATION
Acquiring the skills and understanding the processes necessary for success cannot be done at a single reading.  „Under your own management‟ is the key to the nature of doctoral education  In doctoral education, you have to take responsibility for managing your learning and for getting yourself a PhD.

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF BEING A RESEARCH STUDENT
Students enter the system determined to make an outstanding contribution to their subject  By the time they start the final stages of thesiswriting for the degree they are determined to „get it and forget it!‟  During the intervening years their enthusiasm has been dampened by the demands of having to concentrate on a specific topic and conduct routine and repetitive tasks in an atmosphere where nobody seems either to understand or to care about their work.

MODEL OF DOCTORAL RESEARCH

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURED APPROACH
Chapter 1 introduces the core research problem and then `sets the scene' and outlines the path that the examiner will travel towards the thesis' conclusion  the structure is unified and focused on solving the one research problem  The one big idea is the research problem stated on page 1 or 2 of the thesis and explicitly solved in Chapter 5

JUSTIFICATION OF THE STRUCTURED APPROACH
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The research itself is described in Chapters 2 to 5 the research problem and propositions/ hypotheses arising from the body of knowledge developed during previous research (Chapter 2) methods used in this research to collect data about the hypotheses (Chapter 3) results of applying those methods in this research (Chapter 4) and conclusions about the propositions/hypotheses and research problem based on the results of Chapter 4, including their place in the body of knowledge outlined previously in Chapter 2 (Chapter 5)

DOCTORAL STUDY IS JOURNEY TO GET DOCTORAL DEGRE  THE END OF RESEARCH STUDY

PHD NOT A TITLE TO GRATIFY ONE’S EGOTHE STAR ONLINE- TUESDAY NOVEMBER 30, 2010

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It was reported that the number of PhD holders among academic staff in public universities had increased by 133% since 2005 and Higher Education Department director-general Datuk Dr Radin Umar Radin Sohadi said there were now 14,000 PhD holders compared to 6,000 in 2005. Of the 14,000, 60% were PhD holders in pure science, applied science, engineering, biology, physics, medical and technology and the rest in social and human sciences. This report seems to give the impression that we have produced 14,000 research or innovation equivalent to 14,000 PhDs. What happened to the 40% who came from social and human science? How many of the theses out of the 14,000 were published in reputable journals? Taxpayers‟ money is being used to run these universities. At the end of the day, quality research needs to be seen. Otherwise, a PhD is merely a title to gratify one‟s ego. DOCTORAL STUDY IS JOURNEY TO GET DOCTORAL DEGRE  THE END OF RESEARCH STUDY

WHY DO DOCTORAL RESEARCHERS GET ASKED TO READ SO MUCH?

1) To map the field or fields relevant to the inquiry. This is likely to involve both showing something of the historical development of the field(s),discussing its empirical and theoretical bases and biases, as well as identifying major debates, key figures and seminal texts. (2) To establish which studies, ideas and/or methods are most pertinent to the specific research being undertaken. No project starts from scratch – new research both uses and builds on existing findings. These pre-made building blocks are acknowledged through scrupulous citation practices. (3) To create the warrant for the research. This may involve identifying gaps, bringing together ideas and approaches which have previously remained separate and/or speaking to a particular difficulty, puzzle or debate within the field. Through these three processes, researchers are equipped to not only argue why their research is needed and important, but they also are able: (4) To identify the particular contribution that their research will make. Work with literatures allows researchers to name the conversation(s) which they will enter into and to articulate the „chunk‟ of knowledge they are offering to the scholarly community.
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PROCESS
RESEARCH

PROPOSAL  SUBMIT THE FINAL RESEARCH DEFEND IMPORTAT ISSUE OF DOCTORAL RESEARCH IS CONTRIBUTION NOT

WHAT IS A RESEARCH GAP?
It's

what makes your manuscript publishable It's missing element in the existing research literature It's the gap that you fill with your research approach

APPROCAH TO GETTING RESEARCH GAP

Phenomena:
Mixed previous empirical results (positive/negative; significant/insignificant)  Conflicts in theoretical approach  Conflict in empirical methods  Arbitrage between literatures  Complex ( Rausser and Small, 2000: limited previous results, conflicts, arbitrage)

Your approach to resolve mixed results, conflict, or arbitrage

EXAMPLE: RESEARCH ON CSP AND CFP
To date, studies that looked at the relationship between CSR/CSP and CFP have produced inconsistent results  Some have noted that the conflicting results may have been caused by two main factors: lack of theoretical foundation and methodological problem  some other theories have been proposed to explain the relationship between CSP and CFP, but they fail to provide a clear answer

EXAMPLE: RESEARCH ON CSP AND CFP-2
Despite the importance of contingency perspective proposed by previous studies, many still neglect to integrate the contingency factors in examining the determinants of CFP.  The gap comes for solution  filling the gap

GUIDELINE FOR RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROBLEM
Steps General or Current Issue/Problem/Situation Remarks General Topic of Wide Interest: Current situation/trend 1: Current situation/trend 2:

Literature Reference in Field 1 This summarises what this group of scholars have done BUT… Focus on a small number of seminal or influential works from literature.

Analysis of current literature These scholars did brilliant work; HOWEVER, none of these works have addressed our ISSUE/PROBLEM.

However, these scholars have not addressed the issue of XXXX The questions that arise from this situation are, as follows: 1. 2. 3.

GUIDELINE FOR RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROBLEM-2
Gaps in Knowledge URGENT need or WHY I must address this issue/problem, if not, the world is in big trouble – RATIONALE/JUSTIFICATION And these issues/problems, if left unaddressed, creates a dreadful situation (XXXX), this hinders something wonderful & good (YYYY) from happening. (implications if problems not solved) Thus, this research will address several problems (as needed): 1. 2. 3.

I am the Saviour! So, I must solve this to save the world.

Consequently, the purpose of this research is to fill this gap in literature by examining/investigating/developing …

GUIDELINE FOR RESEARCH AND RESEARCH PROBLEM-3
Research Aim WHAT I am going to do to save us all. The research aims to …

Research Questions

1. 2. 3.

Conclusion It is expected that this research will contribute to…

Implications from research…

Methods HOW I am going to save us all.

Methodology: Methods for data collection: Method for data analysis :