TCP/IP

The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols used for the internet and other similar networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because of its most important protocols: Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), which were the first networking protocols defined in this standard.

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TCP/IP Layers
• Application Layer Defines TCP/IP application protocols and how host programs interface with transport layer services to use the network. Transport Layer Provides communication session management between host computers. Defines the level of service and status of the connection used when transporting data. • Internet Layer Packages data into IP datagrams, which contain source and destination address information that is used to forward the datagrams between hosts and across networks. Performs routing of IP datagrams. • Link Layer Specifies details of how data is physically sent through the network, including how bits are electrically signaled by hardware devices that interface directly with a network medium, such as coaxial cable, optical fiber, or twisted-pair copper wire.
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Application Layer Protocols Internet Technologies 3 .

DHCP eliminates the manual task by a network administrator. The most essential information needed is an IP Address. and a default route and routing prefix. It also provides a central database of devices that are connected to the network and eliminates duplicate resource assignments.DHCP • DHCP: The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network configuration protocol for hosts on (IP) networks. Computers that are connected to IP networks must be configured before they can communicate with other hosts. Internet Technologies 4 .

com translates to the addresses 192. An often-used analogy to explain the Domain Name System is that it serves as the phone book for the Internet by translating human-friendly computer hostnames into IP addresses.0. For example.10 Internet Technologies 5 .Domain Name System (DNS) • The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical distributed naming system for computers.43. • A Domain Name Service translates queries for domain names (which are meaningful to humans) into IP addresses for the purpose of locating computer services and devices worldwide. or any resource connected to the Internet or a private network.example. services. It associates various information with domain names assigned to each of the participating entities. the domain name www.

such as the Internet. but can connect anonymously if the server is configured to allow it Internet Technologies 6 . FTP users may authenticate themselves using a clear text signin protocol. It is often used to upload web pages and other documents from a private development machine to a public web-hosting server. normally in the form of a username and password.File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • FTP: File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network. FTP is built on a client/server architecture and uses separate control and data connections between the client and the server.

Internet Technologies 7 .IMAP • The Internet Message Access Protocol (commonly known as IMAP) is an Application Layer Internet protocol that allows an e-mail client to access e-mail on a remote mail server. IMAP supports both online and offline modes of operation.

User data is interspersed in-band with Telnet control information in an 8-bit byte oriented data connection over the Transmission Control Protcol (TCP).Telnet Telnet is a network protcol used on the Internet or local area networks to provide a bidirectional interactive text-oriented communications facility using a virtual terminal connection. Internet Technologies 8 .

Transport Layer Protocols Internet Technologies 9 .

and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable. complementing the Internet Protocol (IP). TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications such as the Word Wide Web. ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer.TCP • The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite. email. remote administration and file transfer rely on this protocol. Internet Technologies 10 .

to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network without requiring prior communications to set up special transmission channels or data paths. the set of network protocols used for the Internet. Internet Technologies 11 .UDP The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet Protocol Suite. With UDP. computer applications can send messages. in this case referred to as datagrams.

Internet Layer Protocols Internet Technologies 12 .

it is the primary protocol that establishes the Internet. Internet Technologies 13 .IP The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communication protocol used for relaying datagrams (also known as network packets) across an internetwork using the Internet Protocol Suite. Responsible for routing packets across network boundaries.

It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages indicating.ICMP • The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. for example. ICMP can also be used to relay query messages. that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. Internet Technologies 14 .

IPsec also includes protocols for establishing mutual authentication between agents at the beginning of the session and negotiation of cryptographic keys to be used during the session.IPsec • Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a protocol suite for securing Internet Protocol (IP) communications by authenticating and encrypting each IP packet of a communication session. Internet Technologies 15 .

Link Layer Protocols Internet Technologies 16 .

address prefix discovery. discovery of other nodes on the link. determining the Link Layer addresses of other nodes. and maintaining reachability information about the paths to other active neighbor nodes Internet Technologies 17 . It operates in the Internet Layer of the Internet model (RFC 1122) and is responsible for address auto configuration of nodes. duplicate address detection.NDP • The Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) is a protocol in the Internet Protocol Suite used with Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6). finding available routers and Domain Name System (DNS) servers.

Internet Technologies 18 .OSPF • OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is an interior gateway protocol that routes Internet Protocol (IP) packets solely within a single routing domain (autonomous system). It gathers link state information from available routers and constructs a topology map of the network.

Internet Technologies 19 . PPP is also used over Internet access connections (now marketed as "broadband"). transmission encryption. PPP is used over many types of physical networks including serial cable. trunk line. the Point-toPoint Protocol (PPP) is a data link protocol commonly used in establishing a direct connection between two networking nodes. phone line. specialized radio links. cellular telephone.PPP • In networking. It can provide connection authentication. and fiber optic links such as SONET.

Exercise (A) Define the Following. 1) IMAP 2) Telnet 3) Internet Protocol 4) OSPF 5) IPSec 6) UDP 7) Telnet (B) Write Short answers for the following. 1) What is Network Discovery Protocol? 2) What is the function of PPP? 3) Name at least four protocols in Application Layer. 4) Name at least three protocols present in Transport Layer. Internet Technologies 20 . 1) What is TCP/IP? Define all the layers of TCP/IP. 5) What is ICMP? (C) Write the detailed answers for the following. 5) Explain Transmission Control Protocol. 2) What is DHCP? 3) What do you mean by DNS? 4) Explain FTP in details.

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