Client/ Server Relationship

Client/server describes the relationship between two computer programs in which one program, the client, makes a service request from another program, the server, which fulfills the request. Although the client/server idea can be used by programs within a single computer, it is a more important idea in a network. In a network, the client/server model provides a convenient way to interconnect programs that are distributed efficiently across different locations. Computer transactions using the client/server model are very common.  A client is the requesting program or user in a client/server relationship. For example, the user of a Web browser is effectively making client requests for pages from servers all over the Web.  Server: In the client/server relationship, a server is a program that awaits and fulfills requests from client 1 programs in the same or other computers. Internet Technologies

2 Internet Technologies .

or other piece of content. presenting. Web hosts are companies that provide space on a server owned or leased for use by clients. A web hosting service is a type of Internet hosting service that allows individuals and organizations to make their web site accessible via the World wide web. as well as providing Internet connectivity. and traversing information resources on the word wide web An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page. sound and animation that is suitable for the world wide web and can be accessed through a web browser. Web site hosting After a web site is designed it must be stored on a computer that can be accessed through the Internet and the WorldWide-Web. A web page is a document or information resource containing mixture of text. A website is a collections of web pages connected (linked) by Hyper text clickable links. image. video. graphics. and may provide navigation to other web pages via hypertext links. 3 Internet Technologies . This information is usually in HTML format. typically in a data center.Important Terms     A web browser is a software application for retrieving.

and the address is merely the server name of a given resource or page. FTP. which allows both distribution of and access to information on the Internet. telnet.  The larger ISPs have their own high-speed leased lines so that they are less dependent on the telecommunication 4 providers and can provide better service to their customers. URLs in general take the form "protocol: //address" where protocol is something like HTTP.  The World-Wide Web (WWW) is a pair of software applications. The web is not the Internet but a means of distributing and accessing the information that is on it. Internet Technologies  .Important Terms URL (Uniform Resource Locator) The URL is a "standard" way of easily expressing the location and data type of a resource.  An ISP is a company that provides individuals and other company’s access to the Internet and other related services such as Web site development and hosting (web site storage). and so on.

It can be sent along with a Web page to a user. Internet Technologies . and several other related specifications XML is currently a formal recommendation from the World-Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as a way to make the Web a more versatile tool.0 Specification produced by the W3C.Important Terms        5 Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the main markup language for displaying web pages and other information that can be displayed in a web browser. An applet is a small program run on the Web. HTML is written in the form of HTML elements consisting of tags enclosed in angle brackets (like <html>). within the web page content. It is defined in the XML 1. It can perform interactive animations. using Java. the object-oriented programming language. immediate calculations without having to send a user’s request back to the server. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine readable.

– Net-A network organization. – Org-A non-profit organization. – Gov. The largest domain extension currently used. There are seven top-level domains currently in use:-A commercial organization. – Int -An international organization such as the United Nations. In other parts of the world the final part of the domain name represents the country in which the server is located like my for Malaysia.-A branch of the U. CA for Canada and UK for Great Britain. 6 Internet Technologies . sa for Saudi Arabia. – Mil-A branch of the U. a domain is basically a registration category identifying geographic or purpose commonality. – Edu -An educational establishment such as a school or university.S government that is strictly reserved for that purpose.S military that is strictly reserved for that purpose.Domain          On the Internet.

Only people in the government.. military and academic had access to the network. Started with a dozen of networked computer systems of universities and institutions. Contd…. 7 Internet Technologies . Early projects were undertaken in early 1960’s by the US military (known as DARPA net).History of Internet      The Internet grew out of many developments in computer networking and telecommunications research. allowing computers to be shared Allowing fast communication between researchers through Emails.

and then allowed Commercial access to the internet. therefore to better serve their customers. Many businesses spent heavily to improve the internet. exchange data and distribute information. As a result. businesses and all kinds of agencies began to use the Internet to communicate. With commercial access to the Internet. Internet traffic grew. & cost went down! 8 Internet Technologies . the National Science Foundation (NFS) gradually started backing off from its subsidy of the backbone network. hardware and software suppliers. It started competition among communication carriers. Internet’s bandwidth climbed high.History of Internet       In 1991.

9 Internet Technologies . Researchers can learn of scientific and academic breakthroughs worldwide. WWW is changing the nature of the way business is done.History of the World-Wide Web        WWW allows computer users to locate and display multimedia-based documents Introduced in late 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee (Geneva). WWW makes our work easier. It makes information instantly and conveniently available to anyone with a connection Communities can stay in touch with one another.

 It is simple yet powerful concept which connects customers. faxes communication and increases the support between businesses. and also allows key players to connect to critical business systems and access the information that they need. employees. selling. suppliers and distributors to the business systems and information that they need. Intranet & Extranet. 2) Business-to-Business (B2B): B2B solutions refer to transactions between businesses.  Business transaction over the Web is generally divided into two categories: 1) Business -to-Consumer (B2C): B2C solutions generally refer to on-line retailing applications.What is e-business? E-business is conducting business over the Web using Internet.  It allows buying.  10 Internet Technologies . This decreases phone calls. Thus it leads to low cost and business efficiency.

Improves order processing efficiency. Reduces inventory and warehousing expenses. Builds customer loyalty. Reduces costs. Web billing and payment systems enhance financial relationships between customers and supplier. 11 Internet Technologies .Benefits of e-business     Improves the business efficiency by greater market Improve time management and by reducing lag time and paperwork.

Exercise (A) Define the following 1) Client 2) Server 3) Web Site 4) URL 5) Applet 6) World Wide Web (B)Write down the short answers for the following. 3) Write down a few benefits of e-business. 7) What is e-business? C)Write down the detailed answers for the following. 12 Internet Technologies . 1) Explain domain and its categories in detail. 1) What is a web browser? 2) What is a webpage? 3) What do you mean by web hosting services? 4) What is an ISP? 5) Write a short note on HTML? 6) Write a short note on XML. 2) Explain the history of internet in detail.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful