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Continue Education Course of @Advanced Acupuncture, Inc. 2007
Acupuncture Pain Management
Part I: Theory Overview of scientific bases of acupuncture Mechanisms of pain management Current researches and clinical trials Pain Scores and evaluation methods
Scientific Bases of Acupuncture
Neurohumoral Morphogenetic Nerve Reflex Theory The gate control theory of pain Endorphin
Neuro-humoral Approach Peripheral nervous system to be crucial in mediating the acupuncture analgesia Meridian-CortexViscera correlation hypothesis .
Neurohumoral Approach Acupoint-brain-organ Acupuncture stimulates to brain cortex and nerve system. then control the chemical or hormone release to the disordered organs. .
Morphogenetic Theory Shang C. 1989 Acupuncture points are singular points in surface bioelectric field The role of electric field in growth control and morphogenesis Organizing centers have high electric conductance Acupuncture points originate from organizing centers . China.
Japan.Nerve Reflex Theory -Ishikawa and Fujita et al. 1950s Autonomic nervous system extending thru the internal organs Viscera-mutinous reflex Cutanous –Viscera reflex Acupuncture utilize these reflexes for restoring the homeostasis of the body and acceralate the healing process. .
The Gate Control Theory Drs Melzack and Wall. 1965 Model for acupuncture pain relief Specific nerve fibers that transmit pain to the spinal cord (substantia gelatinous) Balance between Stimulation & inhibitory fibers Short term block pain by acupuncture ( did not explain the prolong effect) .
Endorphin Theory Dr. Pomeranz. 1996 Natural Morphine Acupuncture trigger the release of endorphin into the central nervous system Only deal with pain Corticoids and Substance P also released along with endorphin . Canada.
Therapeutic Mechanisms of Acupuncture .
.Acupuncture Mechanisms of Action Conduction of electromagnetic signals Activation of opioids systems Changes in brain chemistry-release of neurotransmitters and neurohormones.
Acupuncture Pathways .
It acts through neurohumoral mechanisms 3. then controlling the chemical or hormone release to the disordered organs for treatment. 2. Acu-point-Brain-organ model: stimulates the brain cortex/nervous system. .Meridian-Cortex-Viscera Correlation Hypothesis 1. The meridian system is and connected the nervous system to the cerebral cortex.
Morphogenetic Singularity Theory Acupuncture points are singular points in surface bioelectric field Converging points of surface current for change in electric current flow. Abrupt transition from one state to another. Eg: BaiHui (Du 20) .
. Gap junctions are hexagonal proteins that facilitate intercellular communication and increase electric conductivity.Physical characteristics of the acupuncture points-WHO Points are corresponds to the high electrical conductance points on the body surface High density of gap junctions at the epithelia of the acupuncture points.
laser. ultrasound.Research on Auricular points WHO found 43 points have proven therapeutic value Therapeutic effect can be achieved by needling. . temperature variation. and pressure.
Effects of Acupuncture on the Brain UCI-Use functional MRI to investigate the mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia Stimulates Li 4 revealed activation of visual cortex. Needling Tin Hui revealed auditory cortex activation .
Effects of acupuncture on the Brain-auditory cortex .
.Why acupuncture has fewer side effects? May indirect adjust the process and restore normal function by activating the network of organizing centers in the organism The activation of the selforganizing activity is less likely to cause the side effects resulted from directly antagonizing a pathological process which often overlap with other normal and beneficial physiological processes.
The role of electric field in growth control and morphogenesis Enhanced cell growth toward cathode and reduced cell growth toward anode in electric fields of physiological strength Fast growing cells tend to have relative negativity polarity. The polarity is due to the increased negative membrane potential generated by mitochondria at high rate of energy metabolism .
safety and costs of acupuncture for chronic pain Evaluated 304.Efficacy.674 patients over 10. .000 physicians and received 10+ acupuncture for pain Results: acupuncture was an effective and safe treatment The effects attributed to specific or nonspecific mechanisms and depend on the diagnosis-results a large research initiative. effective.
Mechanisms of acupuncture for Pain relief Polymodal receptors (PMRs) in the acupuncture points are sensitized for the immediate action. Action mediated by endogenous opioids Potent stimulus for activating the analgesic systems .
Therapeutic Mechanisms of Acupuncture
-Dr.D. Kendall, 1980
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Inserting a needle provokes an acute defensive inflammatory response Afferent nociceptive (pain) neurons distribute to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord Trigger the gamma loop efferent in the ventral horn and activate neurons that cross over the spinal cord to the brain Activate somatic motor nerves To muscles, and autonomic motor nerves to peripheral blood vessels and to the internal organs
Acupuncture Pain Management
Part II: Clinical applications Differential diagnosis and treatment for Headache & migraines, Trigeminal neuralgia, Carpal Tunnel Syndromes, Arthritis, Neck pain, Fibromyalgia, lumbago and sciatic neuralgia.
Etiology of Headache
Blood Vessels that become dilated enlarged or constricted Muscles in the neck and head become tight or tense Muscles around the eyes the become strained due to overwork Sinuses became swollen due to allergies or infections Nerves that transmit abnormal pain signals Joints in the jaw and neck are overused or damaged.
Muscle contraction headache III.Types of Headache -Western Medicine I. Headache of delusional conversion or hypochondriacal states . Vascular headache (Migraines) II. Headache of nasal vasomotor reactions V. Combined vascular & muscle contraction headache IV.
Migraine Headache Classic Migraine Common migraine Cluster headache Hemiplegic and ophthalmoplegic migraine Lower half headache .
Headache Principle acupuncture points G 20 Taiyang Li 4 GV 20 Liv 3 G8 T3 .
pulse floating . especially on exposure to wind. The pain may extend to the nape of the neck and back region.TCM Classification of headache 1. Tongue white coating. Headache due to invasion of pathogenic wind into the channels and collateral: Headache occurs often.
hot temper. blurred vision. .TCM Classification of headache 2. Headache due to upsurge of liver-yang: Headache distension of the head. dizziness. irritability. Tongue red with thin and yellow coating Pulse thin wiry and rapid.
TCM Classification of headache 3. pale complexion Tongue pale with thin white coating’ Pulse thin and thread . dizziness. Headache due to deficiency of qi and blood: Lingering headache. blurred vision. lassitude.
Trigeminal Neuralgia (TN) Causation:-blood vessels compressing the Trigeminal nerve root as it enters the brain stem Peripheral pathologyneurovas compression Central pathologyhyperactivity of the trigeminal nerve nucleus .
Classifications of TN Western Medicine: 1. 3. 5. 4. 3. 6. Typical Atypical Pre-TN MS-related TN Secondary or tumor related TN neuropathy Post traumatic TN Eastern Medicine 1. Pathogenic wind and cold Ascending of Liver and stomach fire Deficiency heat due to liver yin deplete Damp/heat or damp cold accumulation . 2. 2. 7. 4.
. 4. boring and electric shock but transient ( few minutes)s Wind cold or wind heat symptoms 5. 3. Acute onset Usually affects V1 sensory Aversion of wind & cold or aggravated by Pain like cutting.TN-Pathogenic Wind & Cold Clinical manifestation: 1. 2.
(GB14) Taiyang. (extra) Zan Zhu (Bl 2) Wai guan (SJ5) He Gu (Li 4) Herbal formula: Jin Fang Bai du San plus Ginger .Tx-TN Pathogenic wind & cold Acupuncture: Yang bai.
TMJ-Tempro mandibular joint Dysfunction syndrome Symptoms: Grinding teeth. Joint pain. Headache Ringing in the ears Unable to open his or her month wide or hear a “pop” upon opening .
St 5. SI18. and G2 . G 3 & G 14 Maxillary branch: G1.TN-acupuncture treatment Li 3 or Li 4 plus Temporal branch: Taiyang. and ST3 Mandibular branch: St6. St2.
TMJ (TMD) .
Meniscus-cartilage.TMJ-Etiology 1.pain Masseter & temporalis 2. buffer between the jaw and skull. Muscle spasm. Caused “pop” .
TMJ-Acupuncture points ST 7 SI 19 T 17 Li 4 .
bone and ligaments Causing deformity of the joints Damage to the joints can occur early in the disease and be progressive .Osteoarthritis Arthritis due to destruction of the cartilage.
Rheumatoid Arthritis Auto-immune disease Chronic inflammation of the tissue around joints . organ and body Body tissues attacked by own antibodies in the blood level which causes inflammation. Women to men: 3:1 .
bone and ligaments causing deformity of the joints Damage to the joints can be progressive .Osteoarthritis 90% of arthritis Destruction of the cartilage.
Differential Dx of RA/OA .
B 25. T 40. T10. G39 Knee joints: Ankle joints: St 34.. Li 4 Shoulder joints: Elbow joints: LI 15.G 34 Lumbosacra Joints: GV3. Li 10. ST 41. B 65. G 29. Sp 9. T14. SI Li 11. B28 Wrist & joints: T5. G 38. 4 Lumbar spinal joints: Huatuoparaspinal acupoints. B50. B40 B 60 Sacroiliac Joints: B 27. G34. SI 19.St 36. G39 Hip joints: G 30. UB37 and UB 40 Hip joints: G30. G 29. K3. Sp 5 . T3.Principle Acupuncture Points for Arthritis Temporomandibular ST7. B30. G 35 K8 G 34 Metatarsophalangeal joints: Sp 4. LI. T 17. Li 4 11. G34.
. most often compression of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel.Causation of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Painful neuropathies of the hand and wrist are from nerve compression.
Anatomy of CTS .
. Phalen’s sign positive Tinel’s sign positive Light touch/vibratory touch positive Muscle weakness and atrophy EMG: slowed conduction velocity across the CT.Diagnosis of CTS Numbing pain in the distribution of the median nerve but not limited to it.
Etiology of CTS Median nerve compression by tendonitis Usually due to repetitive motion of the wrist and hands. .
Carpal Tunnel Release Surgery: .
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Principle acupuncture points P6 P5 T4 T5 .
Cervical Spondylosis Principle acupuncture points SI 3 G 39 B 64 B 11 G 21 GV 16 T 10 B 10 .
Rotator Cuff Syndrome Principle acupuncture points Li15 Si 11 T14 Li 16 Li12 Li4 L7 L9 T9 T4 .
DX of Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis elbow) History of tennis elbow use Pain just distal to the prominence of the lateral epicondyle Radiological study negative .
Knee Tendonitis Patellar Tendonitis .
Achilles Tendonitis Runner’s injury .
Lower back pain-Etiology Herniated Disk (bulging) Facet joint syndrome Sacroilliac joint syndrome Myofascial syndrome .
Low Back Pain-diagnosis Clinical history Physical examination Pain sensitive structures Pain generators Radiological studies .
Low Back Pain-X-ray .
discs. soft tissues and nerves. myelography.Low Back Pain-MRI Imaging study to evaluate the entire lumbar bones. CT. and discography use to complement MRI .
Referred and Interactive Low Back Pain .
stability and irritability of the dysfunction .Referred and Interactive Low Back Pain The frequent referral of “ somatic pain into the limbs Cause of the cause: Identify the source of symptoms. Make realistic prognosis based on the stage. severity.
Referred and interactiveLow Back Pain .
Low back pain Principle acupuncture points B 40 & K2 (basic) L5. L 5. B 60. K7. Li 4. G34. . Sp6. Li 10. Li 11. B 65. B 40. B 34. 2. Liv.
Sciatic Neuralgia Principle acupuncture points B 23 B 30 G 30 B 36 B 37 B 40 G 34 .
Altered mental status Communication disorders Emotional and psychitric disorders Related paralysis or paresthesia Dx: Refer to physician for further investigation.Traumatic Injury-Brain-TBI Clinical manifestations: 1. 4. . 3. 2.
Cause of Neck Pain .
Radiological Findings of Neck Pain .
. Evidence of inflammation or muscle damage 5.Diagnosis of Fibromyalgia 1. Skin roll tenderness & hyperemia 3. Absence of lab. Bilateral tender points in at least 6 areas. Widespread aching > 3 months 2. Disturbed sleep with morning fatigue and stiffness 4.