## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Magnetic resonance

Dressed state picture

RWA in two-level systems

Rabi oscillations

Spin ½ in a static field along Z plus a rotating magnetic field in X-Y plane

gyromagnetic ratio

defining

The time-dependent Schrodinger equation describing magnetic resonance

a time-dependent Hamiltonian

**Introducing the dressed-state picture:
**

We call this new representation as a dressed-state picture (or the first state is dressed by one photon)

from previous slide: transforming this to equations for

continued on the next slide

In the matrix form, the new set of equations in the dressed state picture then become diagonal term lifted by

But this is simply a Schrodinger equation associated with a time-independent Hamiltonian !

So, by working with a dress-state picture, a time-dependent magnetic-resonance model Hamiltonian is transformed to a time-independent Hamiltonian! For a rotating frequency ω, the effective energy of the first state is lifted by , hence dressed by one photon!

Eigen-energy of the dressed-state effective time-independent Hamiltonian is determined by

where

,

Finding the time-dependence of the wavefunction: Initial state at t = 0:

Final state at t:

the completeness of the two eigenstates

continued on the next slide

Amplitude on state 2 is hence given by

This can be reduced to

resonance curve

A is the oscillation amplitude

From

The resonance peak will reveal

To

nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) laboratories

In reality, is not just an applied static field. It should be the sum of the applied field plus a local effective field (“chemical shifts”).

Information of can then reveal the true chemical environment

Switching from two-level magnetic-resonance systems to two-level systems interacting with laser fields…

Recall our RWA approximation used previously in time-dependent perturbation theory:

1st term

2nd term

We argued: in near-resonance cases, namely, we could do the following RWA: If

if

Consider now a two-level system subject to a near-resonance laser field, (assuming state 2 has higher energy than state 1)

2 1

RWA

dressed-state picture:

Hence under RWA, this two-level optics problem is equivalent to that of the magnetic resonance problem !

Such an RWA treatment of a two-level-plus-laser-field problem was realized by Rabi long ago. In particular: If on-resonance:

To see clearly, assume a real

and

is called Rabi frequency, describing how fast the population is going back and forth between the two levels. (excitation, and then stimulated emission)

Rabi Oscillations Observed in atom-cavity systems (by this year’s Nobel Laureate S. Haroche’s group in 1996)

Extending to multi-level systems: A three-level example

Stokes field

pump field making RWA

A three-level system interacting with two on-resonance laser fields

continued on the next slide

continuing the previous slide:

Now introducing the dress-state picture:

State 1 is dressed by one pump-field photon (on resonance with 12) State 3 is dressed by “minus” one Stokers-field photon (on resonance with 23)

So in this dressed state picture, level 1 is lifted and level 3 is pushed down, resulting three effective levels with exactly the same energy due to the on-resonance conditions.

This is indeed the case. Mathematically, we have

dressed-state picture

(if on-resonance)

Now time-independent Hamiltonian !

Concluding remarks:

Tools such as RWA and dressed-state picture are very standard and important in today’s quantum optics, quantum information, as well cold-atom research communities. We will appreciate more about this in two weeks.

Dressed-state picture, RWA etc can be extended to other systems, such as three-level systems, four-level systems. We will return to these systems when we discuss adiabatic approximations.

- Lecture 17
- Lecture 13
- Lecture 8
- Lecture 18
- Lecture 9
- Lecture 10
- Lecture 11
- Lecture 19
- Lecture 14
- Lecture 20
- Lecture 21
- Lecture 12
- Lecture 16
- Lecture 6
- Lecture 7
- Brochure Pulsation Analysis
- Building Floor Vibrations
- MDB3093 Lecture11(a)
- Field Term Lagrangian
- Laser
- Lecture 3
- Lecture 5
- SpectraPhysics SP-164, SP-165 & SP-168 Service Manual
- Lecture 1
- Ch. 7
- Lecture 2
- Moving Wall UDf Example
- The Dynamic of Cracked Rotors
- Lecture 4
- Vehicle BridgeInteraction Dynamics

Skip carousel

- tmp32DD.tmp
- tmp7D76
- tmp840C
- Study
- Design of Variable Stiffness and Variable Damping Vibration Absorber
- tmp8666.tmp
- tmpD03E.tmp
- Thermal and Vibrational Analysis of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
- tmp2149.tmp
- Modal Analysis of Cable Stayed Bridge (Bandra-Worli Sealink) Using ANSYS
- Standard Coil Products Co., Inc. v. General Electric Company, 306 F.2d 319, 2d Cir. (1962)
- Analysis and Modeling of Single Point Cutting Tool with help of ANSYS for Optimization of Vibration Parameter
- tmpD858
- Expressive Voice Culture, Including the Emerson System by Southwick, Jessie Eldridge
- tmp70D4
- NASA Information Summaries Flutter Excitation
- tmpF0F8
- tmpBD20
- tmpABFB.tmp
- tmp2B41
- tmpCDCB.tmp
- tmpBB6D
- tmp7687.tmp
- tmp2C09.tmp
- As NZS 3200.2.33-2005 Medical Electrical Equipment Particular Requirements for Safety - Magnetic Resonance Eq
- tmp9E2E.tmp
- tmpA78B.tmp
- tmp691
- tmpB5BE
- tmpC47E.tmp

- Lecture Slides Lecture2 Interactive Start
- Lecture Slides Lecture4a Linux Command Line
- Lecture 10
- Lecture 3
- Lecture 5
- Lecture 1
- Lecture 2
- Lecture Slides Lecture1 v2 Introduction
- Lecture0 v3 Logistics
- Lecture 4
- Lecture 6
- Lecture Slides Lecture3 Linux Ssjs v2
- Lecture 7
- ch4_2.c
- ch2_3m.c
- chap4
- Lecture 11
- Lecture 19
- Lecture 14
- Lecture 20
- Lecture 21
- Lecture 12
- Lecture 16
- Introduction to Condensed Matter Physics

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading