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**About the lecturer
**

Lecturer: Asso./Prof. Gong Jiangbin Office: S13-04-04 Email: phygj@nus.edu.sg Office phone #: 6516-1154 Research Interests:

Quantum Control and Quantum Information Quantum-Classical Correspondence Quantum Chaos Ultracold Matter (Bose-Einstein Condensates)

Office hours (tentative):

Mondays, from 3 pm to 5 pm

Three question marks

Why should we take QM a third time ?

What do we already know about QM (from QM1 & QM2) ?

What is the focus of this module ?

Why QM3?

QM is of vast importance in virtually all branches of physics. To apply QM, we need lots of important technical details. QM is a successful theory, but we super-intelligent human beings still don’t understand it (many “theories” for QM interpretations):

e.g.: why, after all, does a strange theory as QM work so perfectly?

Next, what we know: ABC’s about QM

A:

**Normalizable Quantum states and Hilbert space
**

Basis states:

Orthonormal condition:

Completeness condition:

Expansion of a state:

Projection of a state onto basis states

B:

Hermitian operators associated with observables

Matrix representation:

Hermitian condition:

Eigenvalue-eigenfunction:

real

**The Interpretation we adopt here:
**

Quantum systems in general do not possess definite properties. Their states only describe the “potential” of yielding some results upon observation. It is the measurement that collapses the state and creates a result with a certain probability.

Measurement outcome of an observable is given by its eigenvalues. The probability is given by the Born rule:

state

eigenfunction of the observable

Reference Only:

Understanding the Born rule: Is it a separate assumption in QM?

**Example: A wavepacket in space
**

Probability density from x to x+dx if we measure the position

Probability density from p to p+dp if we measure the momentum

Before making the measurement, the state does not have the property of momentum or position. So it is wrong to imagine that the state had a definite distribution of position or momentum. Immediately after the position (momentum) measurement, the state has a definite position (momentum).

C: Quantum evolution in Hilbert space

Schrodinger’s equation:

considering a basis set

For expansion coefficient m:

Schrodinger’s equation in a matrix form

Stationary Schrodinger equation

This is the so-called matrix machanics developed by Heisenberg, Born and Jordan

Heisenberg 1901-1976

Evolution of quantum states in a Hilbert space

**Quantum evolution as unitary transformations
**

Take a time-independent Hamiltonian as an example:

Formal solution: Unitary Operator !

Time evolution preserves the norm and inner products between two states

**The 3rd question mark: focus of this module?
**

Most of the exactly solvable QM problems were solved in QM2 (harmonic oscillator, Coulomb potential, infinitely deep well, etc.)

**It is time to be more realistic! We will
**

Try to solve the Schrodinger equation (stationary as well as time-dependent ones) that cannot be exactly solved, from many different contexts, with a number of powerful techniques.

Overview of PC4130 materials

Perturbation Theory (stationary)

Perturbation Theory (time-dependent)

WKB Approximation

Variational Principle

Adiabatic Approximation

Scattering Theory

**Tutorials, Assignments, and Assessment
**

Many tutorials will be implemented during our lecture hours…

“ > 4 ” problem sets to help you digest this module.

One mid-term test and one final exam.

Assessment:

20% (problem sets) + 20% (mid term) + 60% (final exam)

How much we knew about quantum mechanics?

A self-test: Double-slit experiment from You-tube

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DfPeprQ7oGc

- Lecture Slides Lecture4a Linux Command Line
- Lecture Slides Lecture3 Linux Ssjs v2
- Lecture Slides Lecture2 Interactive Start
- Lecture Slides Lecture1 v2 Introduction
- Lecture0 v3 Logistics
- Lecture 2
- Lecture 3
- Lecture 4
- Lecture 5
- Lecture 6
- Lecture 7
- Lecture 8
- Lecture 9
- Lecture 10
- Lecture 11
- Lecture 12
- Lecture 13
- Lecture 14
- Lecture 15
- Lecture 16
- Lecture 17
- Lecture 18
- Lecture 19
- Lecture 20

Introduction to the module

Introduction to the module

- Lecture 21
- Lecture 14
- Lecture 20
- Lecture 5
- Lecture 2
- Lecture 6
- Lecture 10
- Lecture 13
- Lecture 3
- Lecture 15
- Lecture 8
- Lecture 17
- Lecture 7
- Lecture 9
- Lecture 16
- Lecture 12
- Lecture 11
- Lecture 18
- Lecture 4
- Lecture 19
- QM Lecture One
- Quantum mechanics course Postulates
- 6164456 EinsteinPauliYukawa Paradox What is the Physical Reality
- 1506.03180
- Ket Bra Operators
- Marble Wood - On the Compatibility Between Quantum Theory and General Relativity (Cristi Stoica)
- QM Outline
- Connections Between Special Relativity, Charge Conservation, And Quantum Mechanics
- Marble Wood - A Gentle Unification of Quantum Theory and General Relativity (Cristi Stoica)
- PhysRev.48.696.pdf
- Lecture 1

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