Organization Development (OD)

 Organization development is a systematic process for applying behavioral sciences principles and practices in organization to increase individual and organizational effectiveness.  .Introduction of OD  Meaning: Organization development can be defined as a technique for bringing change in the organization rather than focusing attention on individuals.

"Organization development is a system-wide application of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development and reinforcement of organizational strategies." . and processes for improving an organization's effectiveness. structures.Definitions of OD  According to Cummings and Worley.

” . organization-wide.Definitions of OD  According to Beckhard.' using behavioral-science knowledge. and managed from the top. to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's 'processes. “Organization Development is an effort planned.

Laboratory training methods based on experienced behavior are primarily used to bring change. 3. 2. It is an educational strategy for bringing planned changes.Characteristics of OD  1. . Change agent applying OD technique for change is external to the forms of consultants. It is related to real problems of the organization. 4.

Characteristics of OD  5. The change agents share a social philosophy about human values. and means. 6. The relationships involve mutual trust. and mutual influence. They are humanists seeking to get a humanistic philosophy in organizations. joint goals and means. . There is a close working relationship between change agents and the people who are being changed.

The people are trained accordingly with more emphasis on human relations.Conclusion  This strategy addresses the training needs required for the change.  The aim is to achieve in the organization a pervasive sense of continuous development and heightened receptivity and readiness for change. This is used for more general and lasting aim of developing the organization's own training function rather than accomplishing an immediate discrete change. .

an authority on organizational development and change management. planned. using behavioral-science knowledge" (Beckhard 1969). to increase organization effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organization's processes. .History of OD  In the late 1960s organizational development was implemented in organizations via consultants. Richard Beckhard. and managed from the top. but was relatively unknown as a theory of practice and had no common definition among its practitioners. organization-wide. defined organizational development as "an effort.

First conceived as a research technique with a goal to change the standards. .The Laboratory Training Stem  A T-group or training group is a form of group where participants themselves learn about themselves through their interaction with each other. problem solving. others. Maine. They use feedback. and groups. and role play to gain insights into themselves. attitudes and behavior of individuals. in 1947.  It was pioneered in the mid 1940s by Moreno's protégé Kurt Lewin and his colleagues as a method of learning about human behavior in what became The National Training Laboratories (now NTL Institute) that was created by the Office of Naval Research and the National Education Association in Bethel. the T-group evolved into educational and treatment schemes for non-psychiatric people.

Chris Argyris  In 1957.  One of his several books on OD.  Two of Argyris’s early clients were IBM and Exxon. Chris Argyris was one of the first to conduct team building sessions with CEO and top executives team. OD and organizational learning. .  Argyris was later to make contribution to the theory and research on laboratory training. Intervention Theory and Method. stand as classic in the field.

 Jones’s organization was later called an “organization development group”.  John Paul Jones. Who had come up through industrial relations in collaboration with McGregor and established small internal consulting group. Douglas McGregor was one of the first behavioral scientists to address the transfer problem and to talk systematically about and to help implement the application of T-group skills in complex organization.Douglas McGregor  Beginning about 1957. .

. NTL’s program for specialists in Organizational Training and Development(PSOTD).  Beckard development one of the first major non degree training program in OD. in an attempt to facilitate “A total organization culture change program which today might be called quality of life or OD.  The first was an intensive four-week session held in summer of 1967 at Bethel.Richard Beckard  Richard Beckard worked with McGregor at General Mills in 1959 or 1960.

 He conducted research on leadership. Likert became the director of a new institute for social research .  In 1948 after helping to develop and direct the Survey research center. moral and productivity. which included both the SRC and Research Center for group Dynamics. in psychology from Columbia and his dissertation.  Likert held a Ph. motivation. .THE SURVEY RESEARCH AND FEEDBACK STEM  The SRC ( Survey Research Centre) was founded in 1946 after Renis Likert.D.

. Kurt Lewin.THE ACTION RESEARCH STEM  In the 1940s John Collier. while 2) researchers were able to study the process to gain new information. and William Whyte discovered that research needed to be closely linked to action if organizational members were to use it to manage change.  Action research has two results: 1) organizational members use research on themselves to guide action and change.

ACTION RESEARCH STEM  Two noted action research studies was the work of Lewin and his students at the Hardwood Manufacturing Company (Marrow. Bowers & Seashore. 1967) and Lester Coch and John French's classic research on overcoming resistance to change (Coch & French. 1948). .

a two day conference fro establishing an association of TGroup facilitators was held in Pune.S.  As a result the Indian society for Applied Behavioral Science (ISABS) was established in 1972.  In 1960 14 individuals from India visited U.  In 1971 by Francis Menezes’ proposal.THE SOCIOTECHNICAL AND SOCIOLINICAL STEM  A fourth stem in the history of OD is the evolution of socioclinical and sociotechnical approaches to helping groups and organizations. and studied in NTL. .

interpersonal relations and administrative and managerial problems.  Insights from this experiment carried over into Bion’s theory of group behavior.W.R. Rickman and others  Bion.Bion. . Rickman and others had been involved with the six week “Northfield Experiment” at a military hospital near Birmingham during world War-II.  In this experiment each soldier was required to join a group that performed some task such as handicraft or map reading as well as discussed feelings.

interventions and areas of application that might be called second generation OD.SECOND GENERATION OD  Practitioners and researchers are giving considerable attention to emerging concepts.  Second generation has a focus on organizational transformation. .

 Amir Levy and Uri Merry give one of the most complete exploration of this topic in their book.SECOND GENERATION OD  More and more practitioner and scholars are talking about “organization transformation”.  Beckard and Pritchard contrast “incremental” change strategies and “fundamental” change strategies. Organization Transformation. .

to reduce layers of management and to enhance employee morale. to become more flexible.  The interest had accelerated due to converging pressures on organization to improve quality.SECOND GENERATION OD  Argyris has focused on the defensive routines of organizational members or “master programs in their heads that tell them how to deal with embarrassment and threat”. .

 Interest in TQM  Interest in Visioning and Future Search .  Many organization use team building approaches to help self managed teams and cross functional teams get started.SECOND GENERATION OD  Laboratory training methods have proved highly useful in training team members in effective membership and leadership behavior and in training supervisors and managers in the arts of delegation and empowerment.

with the total organization involved in many instance. professional associations at local.Extent of Application  Applications have varied. for example.state and national levels. country . .  Applications can be made .  OD approaches have become an ongoing way of managing with little program visibility and under different terminology. social welfare agencies .police department. in public schools. colleges. but with only some divisions or plants in others. medical schools.

Extent of Application  The OD Network began in 1964 and by 1998 had a membership of about 34. in 1998 the Network included 184 international members. the majority from Canada. .  Although most Network members reside in the united States .000 and 46 regional networks.  The first doctoral program devoted to training OD specialists was founded by Herbert Shepard in 1960 at Case Institute of Technology.  31 countries were represented in addition to the united States.

. 3) Emergence of action research 4) Evolution of the Tavistock sociolinical approaches.Conclusion  OD emerged from applied behavioral sciences and has four major stems: 1) Invention of T-group and innovations in applications of Laboratory training insights to complex organizations. 2) invention of survey feedback technology.

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