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# 9. Diagram 9.1 shows a man trying to push a bull. Diagram 9.

2 shows the same man trying to push a calf. Both the animals have different mass and the man noticed that it is easier to push the calf rather than the bull.

Diagram 9.1

Diagram 9.2

(i) What is meant by mass? [1 mark] (ii) Using Diagram 9.1 and Diagram 9.2, compare the difficulty with which the bull and the calf can be moved. Relating the mass of the bull and the calf with the level of difficulty of getting them to move or change their direction when the animals are on run, deduce a relevant physics concept. [5 marks]

(iii) Name the physics principle that explains the above situation. [1 mark] (c) In an open field, a boy is being chased by a wild bull. Suggest how he in order to survive from the wild bull. [3 marks]

Diagram 9.3 (c) Diagram 9.3 shows a pile driver which is used in construction (i) Explain how the hammer is able to drive the pile into the ground. [6 marks] (ii) State the changes needed to be made to the following if the driver is drive the pile deeper into the ground. Mass of the hammer Height of the hammer [4 marks]

10. Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show the effect paper before and while the air is blown across the upper surface of the paper.

Diagram 10.1

Diagram 10.2

(a). (i) What is meant by pressure? [1m] (ii) Using Diagram 10.1 and 10.2, compare the air speed on the upper and the lower sides of the paper. Relate the speed of air with its pressure to explain how the paper is lifted up when air is blown toward the top of the paper as shown in diagram 10.2. [4m] (iii) Name the physics principle involved in the above explanation. [1m]

(iv) With the aid of suitable diagram, describe the working principle of a Bunsen burner. [4m]

Diagram 10.3 Diagram 10.3 shows a hydrometer floating in a liquid. The depth to which the hydrometer sinks in a liquid depends on the density of the liquid. Explain how you would design a hydrometer that can be determining a wide range of densities of liquid. Draw a diagram that shows the design of your hydrometer and in your explanation, emphasize the following aspects: The stability of the hydrometer The sensitivity of the hydrometer The ability to measure a wide range of densities if liquids The calibration of the hydrometer. [10m]

11. Table 11 shows characteristics of five springs P, Q, R, S and T. The elasticity of the springs is a property used to choose the most suitable spring as a car suspension. Spring constant k/Ncm-1 500 Length of spring (cm) Diameter of spring coil (cm) 4.0 Rate of rusting

Spring

35.0

Moderate

Q
R S T

1000
1500 3000 6000

35.0
40.0 45.0 50.0 Table 11

8.0
10.0 13.0 14.0

Moderate
High Low High

a)i) What is meant by elasticity ? [1m] ii) Based on the theory kinetic of matter, explain why spring is elastic ? [4m] b)As a researcher, you are assigned to investigate the characteristics of a certain spring that could be used in a car suspension. Explain the suitable characteristics of the spring so that it can be used as suspension in a car of total mass 1200 kg. Decide which spring is most suitable and give reason for your choice. [10m]

(c) Diagram 11 shows a spring of initial length, l cm is then placed with a load of 200 g and then 300 g of load.

Diagram 11
Based on information given on Diagram 11, (i) Calculate the initial length of the spring, l ? [3m] (ii) Calculate the elastic potential energy stored in a spring when a load 300 g placed on it. [2m]

12. Diagram 12.1 shows a light signal travelling through an optical fibre of glass.

Diagram 12.1

(a) Name the light phenomenon involved at Y. (1m) (b) (i) State two changes that happen to the light ray when it passes from air into the optical fibre at X. (2m) (ii) Explain why the light ray follows the path shown in diagram 12.1 when it hits the wall of the optical fibre at Y. (2m) (c) The optical fibre in diagram 12.1 can be used in telecommunications and medicine. You are asked to investigate the characteristics of the type of glass in table 12.1 which could be used to make the inner core of the optical fibre as in diagram 12.1 .

Type of glass J

## Refractive index 1.62

Density/kgm-3 2400

Purity Pure

Strength and Flexibility Strong and rigid Strong but Flexible Strong but Flexible Brittle Strong and rigid

1.59

2300

Pure

1.45

2450

## Contains impurity Contains impurity Pure

M N

1.37 1.20

2500 3000

Table 12.1 Explain the suitability of each characteristics in table 12.1 and hence which type of glass is most suitable to be used to make the inner core of the optical fibre. Give reasons for your choice. (10m)

(d) Diagram 12.2 and 12.3 show a ray of light passing into prism P and prism Q. Both Prisms have similar densities but with different angles. Refractive index of the prism is 1.50. (i) Calculate the critical angle of prism. (3m) (ii) Copy Diagram 12.2 and 12.3 and complete the path of the light ray in both prism until it finally emerges from each object
Diagram 12.2 Diagram 12.3

[2 m]

Question 9 : (a) (i) Mass: A measure of the quantity of matter making up an object/ The quantitative measure of inertia of an object (1 mark) (ii) - The calf is easier to moved than the bull (1 mark) - The bull has a greater mass than the calf (1 mark) - Inertia is a tendency of an object to remains its state of motion or if moving it will continue moving with constant velocity (1 mark) - The bull therefore has a greater inertia than the calf (1 mark) - the higher the mass the higher the inertia (1 mark) (iii) inertia (1 mark) (b) - A boy should run in zig-zag direction (1 mark) - The wild bull has a greater mass so that it has a greater inertia. (1 mark) - it difficult to change its direction (1 mark) (c) (i) - The hammer is lifted high and then released (1 mark) - Just before striking the pile, the hammer would have acquired a high momentum (or velocity). (1 mark) - On striking the pile, the momentum of the hammer is reduced to almost zero in a short time. (2 marks) - This produces an impulsive force of great magnitudes (1 mark) - The impulsive force on the pile drives it deep into the ground. ( 1 mark)

(ii) - The increase in mass will result in higher momentum (1 mark) - The increase in height of the hammer will increase the velocity of the hammer before it hits the pile, thus resulting in higher momentum (1 mark) - When the hammer hits the pile with higher momentum, a bigger impulse force is produced on the pile and drives the pile deeper into the ground. (2 marks) Total : 20 marks Question 10 : (a) (i) Pressure is defined as force per unit area (1 mark) (ii) - The air speed on both sides of the paper in Diagram 10.1 is the same (1 mark) . In Diagram 10.2 The air speed on upper sides is higher than the air speed at the lower sides (1 mark) - The higher the speed the lower the pressure (1 mark) - The air pressure on the upper sides in smaller than the air pressure at the lower sides (1 mark) - The higher the speed the lower the pressure (1 mark) - The difference of pressure causes upward resultant force which acting on the paper. (1 mark) any 4 marks (iii) Bernoullis principle (1 mark)

(iv)

(2 marks) The pressure of fast moving gas stream from the nozzle is less than the surrounding atmospheric pressure. (1 mark) The difference in pressure causes air to be drawn into the tube. (1 mark) (b)

- The base of the hydrometer having bigger diameter (1mark) - the hydrometer can stand up right in the liquid. (1 mark) - Lead shots are added to the base , (1 mark) to lower the centre of gravity of the hydrometer (1 mark) - It becomes more stable (1 mark) - The stem of the hydrometer has a small diameter (1 mark) - it needs to sink more in order to displace the same amount of water. It will increase its sensitivity. (1 mark) - The stem be made thin and long (1 mark) - Liquids with known densities are used to calibrate the hydrometer. (1 mark) For every liquid with known density, the level of the liquid on the hydrometer stem is marked. (1mark) - The more the hydrometer sinks in a liquid, the smaller is the density of the liquid (1 mark) any 10 marks

Question 11 (a) (i) . Enables to return to its original shape after applied external force is removed (1mark) (ii)- Repulsion force and attraction force between atoms are always present in metals in solid state. (1 mark) - When a compressive force is applied a force of repulsion between atoms acts (1m) -When a stretching force is applied a force of attraction between atoms acts. (1m) - When the external force is removed the repulsive force pushes and the attraction pull the atoms back to their original position (1m) (b) 1. smaller diameter of coil (1 mark) 2. less elastic (1 mark) 3. length of spring not too long or too short (1 mark) 4. there is a space to compression of the spring (1 mark) 5. force constant moderately large ( 1 mark) 6. can give larger damping force to stop the oscillation of car Body (1 mark) 7. rate of spring low (1 mark) 8. last longer and not spoilt due to rusting (1 mark) 9. spring S is suitable (1 mark) 10. because of smaller diameter of coil, moderately length of ( 1mark) spring , large force constant and low rate of rusting.

( c) i. 200/ L-12 = 300/ L 9 (2 marks) L = 18 cm ( 1 mark) ii. Elastic Potential energy = F x = (3) (0.09) ( 1 mark) = 0.135 J (1 mark) Total : 20 marks

Question 12 ( a) Total internal reflection (1 mark) (b) (i). velocity decreases (1 mark) the light ray is refracted towards normal (1m) (ii). the light ray passing through more dense to less denser medium (1 mark) angle of incidence more than critical angle. (1 mark)

(c ) 1. high refractive index than outer cladding (1 mark) 2. so that light ray can reflect when angle of incidence more than critical angle (1m) 3. lower density (1 mark) 4. the optical fibre will be lighter (1 mark) 5. should not contain impurity (1 mark) 6. impurity absorb light causes the image to be blurred (1 mark) 7. strong but flexible (1 mark) 8. do not break easily and can bent (change their shape) (1 mark) 9. K is most suitable (1 mark) 10. because high refractive index, low density, pure and strong and flexible. (1 m) (d) ( i) n = 1/sin C (1 mark) 1.5 = 1/ sin C (1 mark) C = 41.8 (1 mark)

(ii)

(1)

(1)

## 7 (a) Figure 7.0 shows three elements, B, C and D

23 11

16

12 6

Figure 7.0 (i) What is meant by covalent bond? [2 marks] (ii) By using the elements in Figure 7.0 describe the formation of (a) ionic bond (b) covalent bond [13m] (iii) State 3 differences between ionic compound and covalent compound. [3 m] (b) Figure 7.2 shows electron arrangement of a compound formed by atom K and L.

(i)

## Atom L become positively charge ion, explain why. [ 2 m]

8. Table 8.1 shows information of two alkalis Type of alkali A B Concentration (mol dm -3 ) pH value 0.1 0.1 11 13

Table 8.1 (a) Give one example of each alkali, explain why the pH values of each alkalis are different. [6m]
(b) Table 8.2 shows the observation of two solutions of hydrogen chloride in solvent X and solvent Y when tested with dry blue litmus paper. Solution Hydrogen chloride in solvent X Hydrogen chloride in solvent Y Observation The dry litmus paper turned red. No change.

Table 8.2 (i) Name one possible substance that can be solvent X and solvent Y respectively.[ 2m] (ii) Explain the observation in (b). [ 4 marks ]

(c)A student wants to prepare 500 cm3 of 0.1 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide from 2.0 mol dm-3 sodium hydroxide in the science laboratory. Describe how this preparation can be carried out. [ 6 marks ] (d) A farmer discovered that most of his plants cannot grow well because acid rain increases the acidity of the soil. As a chemistry student, suggest one chemical that can be used to overcome this situation. Give a reason for your suggestion [ 2 marks ]

9 (a) State the meaning of salt. [ 1mark] (b) Describe an experiment to prepare a pure sample of cooper(II) nitrate from copper(II) oxide in the laboratory. In your answer, write down the chemical equation for the reactions involved. [13 m] (c) State three methods for preparing a soluble salt and give an example for each of the method by writing the chemical equation. [6 m]

10(a)Explain why solid sodium chloride cannot conduct electricity but an aqueous solution of sodium chloride does. [ 2 marks] (b) (i) Using 0.1 mol dm -3 silver nitrate solution as electrolyte , describe an experiment to compare the products of electrolysis with (a) carbon electrodes (b) silver metal electrodes [ 17 marks] (ii) State one factor that affects the products of electrolysis. [1 mark]

7 (a) (i) Bond which formed when two or more atom share the valence electron to achieved the stable electron arrangement. (ii) Ionic bond: 1. Between atom B and C 2. Atom B has electron arrangement 2.8.1 3 .Atom B will donate 1 valence electron 4 .to achieve the stable electron arrangement 5 .and become positively charged ion// BB+ + e6. Atom C has 6 valence electron 7. accept 2 electron and become negatively charge ion// C + 2e- C28. 2 atom B will donate1 electron each to 1 atom C 9 The force of attraction between ions are very strong Covalent bond: 10. Between atom C and D 11. To achieve the stable electron arrangement 12. One atom D will share 4 electron with 2 atom C 13. Force of attraction between molecules are weaker

(iii)

Type of compound
Melting point and boiling point Electric conductivity

Ionic compound
Higher

Covalent compound
Lower

Can conduct electricity Cannot conduct in molten state or electricity in any state aqueous solution Dissolve in water but cannot in organic solvent Dissolve in organic solvent but cannot in water

Solubility

(b) Atom L has 2 valence electron, donate 2 electron to achieve the stable electron arrangement

8 (a) Alkali A- : sodium hydroxide/ barium hydroxide / potassium hydroxide Strong alkali ionises completely in water to produce high concentration of OHAlkali B : ammonia solution Weak alkali Ionises partially in water to produce low concentration of OH(b) (i) X : methylbenzene/ tetrachloromethane/ any organic solvents @ Y : water (ii) Hydrogen chloride ionizes completely in water to form H+, so solution X shows acidic properties . Without water, hydrogen chloride exists as molecules. There are no H+ present, so solution Y does not show acidic properties.

(c)Calculation 2.0 x Volume acid = 1.0 x 100 Volume acid = 1.0 x 100 // 2.0 = 50 cm3 1. Use a pipette to draw up 50 cm3 2.0 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid . 2. Transfer the acid to a 100 cm3 volumetric flask. 3. Add distilled water to bring the level of solution until the calibration mark. 4. Stopper the flask and shake well. (d) Add powdered lime/ lime stone / ashes of burnt wood Reason weak alkali, can neutralize acidity in the soil

9 (a) Salt is an ionic compound formed when the hydrogen ion in an acid is replaced by a metal ion or an ammonium ion (1) (b) Material : 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid, copper (II) oxide powder (1) Apparatus: 250 cm3 beaker, glass rod, filter funnel, retort stand and clamp, Bunsen burner, 250 cm3 conical flask, filter paper, evaporating dish, 50 cm3 measuring cylinder, spatula. (1) Procedure: 1. Pour 50 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3 nitric acid into a beaker. (1) 2. Warm the acid. (1) 3. Add copper(II) oxide powder bit by bit into the acid. (1) 4. Stir the mixture . (1) 5. Add copper(III) oxide until some of it no longer dissolve. (1) 6. Filter the mixture. (1) 7. Heat the filtrate until it become saturated. (1) 8. Let it cool. (1) 9. Filter out the crystals. (1) 10. Dry the crystal using the dry filter paper. (1) Chemical equation: 2 HNO3 + CuOCu(NO3)2 + H2O (1)

(c) (i) Acid + alkali salt + water (1) Example: HCl + NaOH NaCl + H2O (1) (ii) Acid + metal salt + hydrogen (1) Example : 2HNO3 + Mg Mg(NO3)2 + H2 (1) (iii) Acid + base salt + water (1) Example: H2SO4 + CuO CuSO4 + H2O (1) (iv) Acid + metal carbonate salt + water + carbon dioxide. (1) Example: 2HCl + CaCO3 CaCl2 + H2O + CO2(1)

10 (a) Solid sodium chloride consists of ions which are held in fixed positions by strong ionic bonds and are not freely moving. In aqueous sodium chloride, the ionic bonds are broken and the ions move freely. (2) Materials : 0.1 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution, wooden splinter, sandpaper (1) Apparatus: Batteries, carbon electrodes, silver electrodes, electrolytic cell, connecting wires with crocodile clips, ammeter, test tube and switch.[ or labelled diagram of set-up of apparatus] (1) Procedure : 1. An electrolytic cell is half-filled with 0.1 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution. (1) 2. The electrodes are connected to batteries and an ammeter with connecting wires.(1) 3. A test tube filled with silver nitrate solution is inverted over the anode. (1) 4. The switch is turned on and electric current is allowed to flow for 15 minutes. (1) 5. Observations at anode and cathode are recorded. 6. Steps 1- 6 are repeated using silver electrodes in place of carbon electrodes. (1) 7.Observations: Electrodes Observation
Anode Carbon Bubbles of colourless gas released, relights a glowing wooden splinter. Silver electrode becomes thinner. Cathode A shiny, grey solid deposited.

Silver

## A shiny, grey solid deposited. // Cathode becomes thicker.

Silver nitrate solution consists of Ag +, NO3 - , H- , OH- ions. (1) When carbon is made the anode, OH- ions are selectively discharged because they are lower than NO3- ions in the electrochemical series to produce oxygen gas // 4 OH - O2 + 2 H2O + 4 e- (1) At the cathode, Ag+ ions are lower than H+ ions in the electrochemical series and are selectively discharged to form silver metal // Ag + + e Ag (1) When silver is made the anode, silver atoms ionise to form Ag + ions. The silver anode dissolves // AgAg + + e- (1) At the cathode, Ag + ions are lower than H + ions in the electrochemical series and are selectively discharged to form silver metal // Ag + + e- Ag (1) (ii) Type of electrode// Concentration of electrolyte// Position of ion in Electrochemical Series. (1)

6. Diagram 6.1 shows the beginning and the end of an experiment to illustrate a physical process. Potassium permanganate (VII) crystal Distilled water Diagram 6.1 (a) (i) Give a brief explanation of the process shown in Diagram 6.1. [4 m] (ii) Fresh milk Fish Explain one method by which the above food can be preserved for a long period of time. [6m]

Purple solution

## 7. Diagram 7 shows three organisms P, Q and R.

Diagram 7 (a) (i) Describe the type of nutrition in P and Q. [4 marks] (ii) Explain one similarity and four differences for the alimentary canals and types of nutrition between Q and R.[10 marks]

Poor eating habits result in health problems such as obesity, anaemia and constipation. (b) Based on the statement above, state the causes and suggest ways on how to overcome the health problems mentioned in the statement. [6 marks]
8. (a) Diagram 8.1 shows Amoeba sp. that lives freely in freshwater.

Diagram 8.1 (i) Explain how this unicellular organism carries out gaseous exchange to fulfill its needs. [4 m]

(b) Diagram 8.2 shows the structures found in the respiratory systems of two organisms, X and Y.

Diagram 8.2 (i) Explain how the structures shown in the diagram above is adapted to carry out the gaseous exchange process efficiently. [6 marks]

(c) Diagram 8.3 shows the structures involved in the human breathing mechanism.

Diagram 8.3 (i) Based on Diagram 8.3, explain how the mechanism of breathing involving intercostal muscles, rib cage and diaphragm occur. [10 marks]

9. (a) Diagram 9.1 shows one of the environmental phenomena which has become a current topic of discussion.

Diagram 9.1 (i) Name this phenomenon and explain how its happens. If you are an environmental activist, suggest how would you explain to society about the measures needed to overcome the phenomenon. [ 10 m]

(b) A tropical forest areas developed into an industrial area as shown in Diagram 9.2.

Diagram 9.2 (i) Discuss the good and the bad social, economic and environmental effects of this development. [10 marks]

6(a) (i) The process shown in diagram 6.1 is simple diffusion. At the beginning of the experiment the base of the beaker has a high concentration of potassium permanganate(VII) whereas in the distilled water, the concentration of potassium permanganate(VII) is low. There is concentration gradient between the potassium permanganate(VII) at the base of the beaker with the distilled water at the top. The diffusion of potassium permanganate(VII) molecules will occur from the region of high concentration to low concentration, which is in accordance to the concentration gradient to achieve equilibrium of concentration. Hence, at the end of the experiment, the purple colour of potassium permanganate(VII) can be seen throughout the water in the beaker because the potassium permanganate molecules have moved by simple diffusion to a region of low concentration of potassium permanganate(VII).

6 (a) (ii) Fresh milk Pasteurisation is a method of preservation of milk. Fresh milk is heated to 63C for 30 minutes and then cooled instantly. Or milk is heated to 72C for 15 seconds and then cooled instantly. The method of preservation will destroy the microorganisms but will not change the nutrient value and colour of milk. Fish The process of dehydration is a method of preserving fish. The fish is dried with the use of fire, smoke or is left in the hot sun. Food that is dried will have very low content of water and also is covered with carbon. The water content which is low will cause the microorganisms which are present to be destroyed or change into spores which are not active.

7 (a) (i) Organism P shows autotrophic nutrition whereby it is able to synthesis complex organic substances, for example, carbohydrates from inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide and water. Organism Q shows heterotrophic nutrition, whereby it is unable to synthesis its own food and has to feed on food substances previously synthesised by other organisms. 7 (a) (ii) Similarity Both have alimentary canals which are unable to secrete enzyme cellulose to digest cellulose. Differences R is a rodent with a one-chamber stomach whereas Q is a ruminant with a fourchamber stomach. R has a large caecum compared to Q. In R, food is digested twice through the alimentary canal whereas in Q, food is digested only once. In R, there is no regurgitation of food. In Q, the partially masticated food is regurgidated to the mouth for further mastication. Bacteria and protozoa in the caecum of organism R secrete cellulase to digest cellulose. Bacteria and protozoa in the rumen and reticulum of organism Q secrete cellulose to digest cellulose.

7 (b) Obesity Obesity is often caused by consumption of excess carbohydrates and fats and lack of exercise. People who are obese should reduce intake of fats and carbohydrates and carry out more exercise. Anaemia Anaemia may be due to insufficient red blood cells or the available red blood cells do not contain sufficient haemoglobin to transport oxygen. Anaemia often results from a deficiency of nutritional factors (e.g. iron, vitamin B12) required to synthesis haemoglobin or red blood cells. It may also be caused by excessive loss of blood or destruction of the cells by endoparasites. There should be an increase in the intake of ion and vitamin B12 if anaemia is caused by the deficiency of these factors. Constipation Constipation is the difficulty or infrequent elimination of faeces from the body. Eating more food high in dietary fibres and drink more fluid to prevent constipation.

8 (a) (i) Amoeba does not have special structure to carry out respiration. Gaseous exchange is carried out through diffusion across the plasma membrane. The concentration of oxygen is higher in the outside environment compared to inside the cell. The oxygen diffuses into the cell by diffusion across the plasma membrane. The concentration of carbon dioxide is higher in the amoeba compared to the outside environment. Carbon dioxide diffuses out through the plasma membrane by diffusion. 8 (b) (i) Organism X Has branching fine tracheoles to increase the total surface area to volume ratio Tracheoles have a moist wall to facilitate dissolving of the gas The wall of tracheole is thin to speed up the process of gaseous exchange. The number of tracheoles is numerous to provide a large surface area. Organism Y The gill filaments have numerous projections to increase the surface area. The thin membrane of the filament facilitates diffusion of respiratory gases into and out. There are numerous blood capillaries in the gill filament to absorb oxygen and eliminate carbon dioxide.

8 (c) (i)

Inhalation
External intercostal muscles contract. Internal intercostal muscles relax. Diaphragm muscles contracts // Diaphragm flattens. The rig cage moves upwards and outwards. The volume of the thoracic cavity increases. Air pressure decreases. The air from the atmosphere rushes.

Exhalation
External intercostal muscles relax. Internal intercostal muscles contract. Diaphragm muscles relax // Diaphragm curves upwards. The rig cage moves inwards and downwards. The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases. Air pressure increases. The air from the atmosphere is forced out.

9 (a) (i) This phenomena is called greenhouse effect Cause combustion of fossils fuels, deforestation and open burning Energy from the Sun reaches the earth through radiation Some of this radiation is absorbed by the earth Greenhouse effect happens as carbon dioxide that are released to the atmosphere will form a layer of gas Increase in CO2 concentration become traps heat CO2 absorbs the infrared radiation The layer of CO2 will be denser than air hence preventing heat that is reflected to the earth to be released The reflected heat will continue to increase the temperature of the earth /global warming Melting the polar ice causing raise the sea level

9 (b) (i) The good a social, economic and environmental effects 1) Provides job opportunity 2) Its can improve economic status 3) Provides infrastructure basic needs 4) Such as built up schools to upgrade quality 5) Provides better living condition for settlement 6) Such as electric supply and hygienic water supply 7) Convenient transport system 8) Easy to move from one place to another The bad a social, economic and environmental effects 1) Area exposed to land reclamation 2) During heavy rain, soil particles are washed away to the river leads to muddy flood. 3) Habitat for flora and fauna are destroyed 4) Extinction of flora and fauna 5) Pollution air/ water / thermal / sound 6) Leads to decrease in health quality 7) Increase population , leads to social problem