Introduction to Zoology

Prepared by: Asst. Prof. Sheryl Santa Cruz-Biscocho
1

Zoology
• Scientific study of the diversity of animal life

life shares a common evolutionary origin, principles learned from the study of one group often pertain to other groups as well
2

Why do you have to Study Zoology?

3

Understand the natural world

4

Learn to protect the environment

5

Develop skills for learning

6

Fundamental Properties of Life
Does Life Have Defining Properties? What is life? No simple definition The history of life shows extensive and ongoing change called evolution Answer must be based on the common history of life on earth
1-7

Myths To Explain Biological Processes
• Disease caused by evil spirits • Brain produces snot • Blood determines heredity • Heart is for emotions

8

How Does Science Separate Myths from Reality?

Scientific Method

Scientific Method
• Observation • Hypothesis
– Prediction

• Test Hypothesis
– Experiment – Further Observations

• Conclusion

10

Edward Jenner 1749-1823
• Smallpox • Scientific method

11

Observation
• Smallpox is deadly

12

Observation
• Survivors are immune

13

Observation
• Milkmaids do not get smallpox

14

Observation
• Milkmaids get cowpox from cows

15

Hypothesis
Cowpox Makes You Immune to Smallpox

Prediction
• If you are exposed to cowpox, you will be immune to smallpox

17

Experiment

18

Results
• Boy did not get smallpox

19

Conclusion
• Hypothesis supported

20

Robert Koch 1843-1910
• Identified the bacterium that causes anthrax • Identified the bacterium that causes tuberculosis

21

Louis Pasteur 1822-1895
• Developed vaccines for rabies and anthrax • Demonstrated the existence of germs • Invented Pasteurization

22

A New Scientific Theory Explains the Observations of Many Scientists
• Edward Jenner
– Smallpox

• Louis Pasteur
– Rabies and anthrax

• Robert Koch
– Tuberculosis and anthrax

23

Germ Theory of Disease
• Germs cause disease • Predictions of the Germ Theory
– Many diseases are caused by germs
• • • • Diptheria Whooping cough Measles Plague

• Modern medicine uses the Germ Theory to guide research
24

Ramifications of Germ Theory
• Previous concepts about the cause of many diseases incorrect
– Evil spirits – Bad thoughts – Excess blood

25

Theory vrs Scientific Theory
• Theory (as used outside of science)
– Guess – Speculation – Has not been tested

26

Scientific Theory
• • • • • Principle Tested many times Explains many different phenomena Makes predictions Falsifiable

27

Falsify Germ Theory
• Smallpox occurs without the smallpox virus • Tuberculosis occurs without the TB bacterium • Discovery of a different type of cause for infectious diseases
– Cell phones – Computer screens – Lack of exercise
28

Jeff’s Lost Dog
I love my dog

• Jeff’s beloved dog is missing (observation) • Jeff thinks the dog has run away (hypothesis) • What can falsify his hypothesis? • Jeff finds his dog asleep in the house
29

Testing Hypotheses
• Observation
– Jeff found his dog asleep in the house – Scientists find the same bacterium in the bodies of people who die of the plague

• Experiment
– Jenner vaccinates boy with cowpox and later infects him with smallpox. The boy does not get smallpox.
30

100 Sick People

• Experimental group • 50 People • Medicine X

• Control group • 50 People • Placebo

31

Three Days Later

• Experimental group • 34 Better • Medicine X

• Control group • 33 Better • Placebo

32

Three Days Later

• Experimental group • 34 Better • Medicine X

• Control group • 5 Better • Placebo

33

Why does this frog have extra legs?

34

Law vrs Theory
• Law
– Observation that has been repeated numerous times – Law of gravity – Does not explain the observation

• Theory
– Explains why or how something in nature happens
35

Which is most important to a scientist?
• • • • Fact Hypothesis Law Theory

36

Theory is the most important
• Theory
– Explains laws, hypotheses and facts

• Law
– States what happens

• Hypothesis
– Untested theory

• Fact
– Observation
37

Major Scientific Theories
• Germ Theory of Disease
– Germs cause infectious disease

• Atomic Theory
– Matter is made if tiny atoms

• Gene Theory (Chromosomal Theory)
– Genes on chromosomes determine heredity

• Cell Theory
– All living things are made of cells
38

Theory of Evolution
• Populations of organisms change over time • Changes result in new species that share a common ancestor.

39

Evolution is both a fact and a theory
• Fact
– Evolution is documented in the fossil record and has been observed in our lifetime.

• Theory
– How evolution happens

40

Theory of Evolution
• Scientists no longer ask if evolution occurs. They study how evolution occurs. • Evolution is the major theory that guides research in Zoology

41

Science
• A body of knowledge gained from studying the natural world • It is tested against the natural world
– Does not use supernatural explanations

• Its conclusions are not absolute.
– New discoveries can revise previous conclusions

It is falsifiable
42

• Chemical Uniqueness: Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex molecular organization
– Small molecules are assembled into macromolecules: 1. Nucleic Acids 2. Proteins 3. Carbohydrates 4. Lipids
1-43

General Properties of Living Systems

General Properties of Living Systems Complexity and Hierarchical Organization:
Living systems demonstrate a unique and complex hierarchical organization In living systems there exists a hierarchy of levels that includes: Macromolecules Cells Organisms Populations Species
1-44

General Properties of Living Systems  Reproduction:
Living systems can reproduce themselves

At each level of the biological hierarchy living forms reproduce to generate others like themselves:  Genes replicated to produce new genes.  Cells divide producing new cells.  Organisms reproduce, sexually or asexually, to produce new organisms  Populations may fragment to produce new populations  Species may split to produce new species 1-45

General Properties of Living Possession of Systems a Genetic Program:
A genetic program provides fidelity of inheritance
Nucleic Acids: Polymers built of repeated units called nucleotides DNA: Long, linear, chain of nucleotides containing genetic information Sequence of nucleotide bases in DNA determines the order of amino acids in proteins Genetic Code: correspondence between base sequences in DNA and the sequence of 1-46 amino acids in a protein

General Properties of Living Systems
Metabolism: Living organisms maintain themselves by acquiring nutrients from their environments Metabolic processes include:
Digestion Energy production (Respiration) Synthesis of required molecules and structures by organisms
1-47

General Properties of Living Systems
• Development: All organisms pass through a characteristic life cycle
– Development describes the characteristic changes that an organism undergoes from its origin to its final adult form
1-48

General Properties of Living Systems
• Environmental Interaction: All animals interact with their environments
– Ecology: The study of organismal interaction with an environment – All organisms respond to environmental stimuli

1-49

• Movement: Living systems and their parts show precise and controlled movements arising from within the system
– Living systems extract energy from their environments permitting the initiation of controlled movements

General Properties of Living Systems

1-50

Zoology As Part of Biology
Characteristics of Animals:
Eukaryotes: cells contain membraneenclosed nuclei Heterotrophs: Not capable of manufacturing their own food and must rely on external food sources Cells lack cell walls

1-51

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful