ADVANCED CONSTRUCTION AND MATERIALS.

SURABHI GADKARI FOURTH YEAR I.D

WCVs themselves incorporate a compacting mechanism which is used to increase the payload of the vehicle and reduce the number of times it has to empty.COMPACTORS  A compactor is a machine or mechanism used to reduce the size of waste material or soil through compaction. compactors take many shapes and sizes.    . This usually takes the form of hydraulically powered sliding plates which sweep out the collection hopper and compress the material into what has already been loaded. A trash compactor is often used by homes and businesses to reduce the volume of trash. Normally powered by hydraulics. the most familiar being the car crusher. a large bulldozer with spiked wheels called a landfill compactor is used to drive over waste deposited by waste collection vehicles (WCVs). In landfill sites for example. Different compactors are used in scrap metal processing.

This first roller was known as a “sheepsfoot” compactor (after the design of its feet) and consisted of two oscillating welded steel drums with a series of spaced welded rods projecting from it. a company whose innovations in the earthmoving industry are legend. Although quite heavy in its own right.It was not always practical to wait several years before the filled land has compressed enough to be used. This device  . extra weight could be added to increase compacting effort. filled areas were either compacted by humans and animals (usually horses pulling a heavy roller) or left to stabilise naturally.HISTORY  Prior to the invention of the earth compactor. The first purpose built earth compactor was designed and manufactured in 1928 by RG LeTourneau Inc. This was not always an ideal situation as voids left in the fill could subside over time. sometimes with disastrous consequences.

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restaurants. These compactors are almost exclusively of welded steel construction for two reasons: durability under pressure and exposure to the elements.USES OF COMPACTORS COMMERCIAL USE      Many retail and service businesses. Secured Indoor Chute. Most popular loading configurations fall under the following: Ground-Access. use compactors to reduce the volume of non-recyclable waste as well as curb nuisance such as rodents and smell. as compactors are installed either completely outdoors or sometimes under a covered loading dock. In the hospitality industry tolerance for such nuisances is particularly low. and hotels. such as fast food. with quite a few loading configurations. Walk-On. . These compactors typically come in electric and hydraulic operation.

they reduce the volume of garbage. MUNICIPAL USE  In addition to the waste vehicle and landfill use. there are solar-powered trash compactors that can hold the equivalent of 200 gallons of trash before they need to be emptied.RESIDENTIAL USE  There are also trash compactors. designed for residential use. . hydraulic or manual. The primary manufacturer of these devices is Bigbelly Solar. some compactors reduce the volume of polysterene to 1/30. Likewise. For example.

the jumping jack compactor has a smaller foot. there are three main types of compactor: the plate compactor. the "Jumping Jack" and the road roller. The plate compactor has a large vibrating baseplate and is suited for creating a level grade.CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY     In construction. Road rollers may also have vibrating rollers. . The roller type compactors are used for compacting crushed rock as the base layer underneath concrete or stone foundations or slabs. The jumping jack type is mainly used to compact the backfill in narrow trenches for water or gas supply pipes etc.

usually wheeled. rock. raw minerals. and woodchips) into or onto another type of machinery (such as a dump truck. snow. A loader is commonly used to move a stockpiled material from ground level and deposit it into an awaiting dump truck or into an open trench excavation. logs. and move it from one place to another without pushing the material across the ground. feed-hopper. conveyor belt. such as dirt. A loader is a type of tractor. demolition debris. dirt. recycled material. sand or gravel.gravel.WHEEL LOADERS  A loader is a heavy equipment machine often used in constuction.  . sand. feed. sometimes on tracks. that has a front mounted square wide bucket connected to the end of two booms (arms) to scoop up loose material from the ground. or railcar). primarily used to load material (such as asphalt.

DETAILS OF A WHEEL LOADER .

PARTS OF A WHEEL LOADER .

Instead. Unlike backhoes or standard tractors fitted with a front bucket.FRONT LOADERS    Front loaders are commonly used to remove snow especially from sidewalks. parking lots. They are sometimes used as snowplows with a snowplow attachment but commonly have a bucket or snowbasket. peat and light gravel and when the bucket is emptied from a height. and other areas too small for using snowplows and other heavy equipment. many large loaders do not use automotive steering mechanisms. they steer by a . which can also be used to load snow into the rear compartment of a snowplow or dump truck. High-tip buckets are suitable for light materials such as chip.

forks for pallet work. and are popular due to their relatively low cost and high versatility. They were developed to perform a multitude of farming tasks. Its current 'drive-in' form was originally designed and developed in 1958 by a company called Quicke. Tractor loaders can be fitted with many attachments such as hydraulic grabs and spikes to assist with bale and silage handling. and buckets for more .TRACTOR FRONT LOADERS  These loaders are a popular addition to tractors from 50 to 200 hp.

COMPACT FRONT END LOADERS    Semi-curved compact loader on a John Deere compact utility tractor Visibility comparison of different loader designs Popular additions to compact utility tractors and farm tractors are Front End Loaders. There are 2 primary designs of compact tractor FELs. also called CUTs are small tractors. Compact utility tractors. also referred to as a FEL. typically with 18 to 50 horsepower (37 kW) and used primarily for grounds maintenance and landscape chores. the traditional dogleg designed style and the curved arm .

protecting it against rocks. demolishing small houses.ARMORED WHEEL LOADERS  The Israeli Combat Engineering Corps use armored Caterpillar 966 wheel loader for construction and combat engineering missions in hostile territories such as the West Bank. They are often seen building or removing road blocks. . TheIDF added armor plating for the loader. building bases and fortifications and starting in 2005.

which utilizes a continuous track on either side of the vehicle instead of the wheels.SKID LOADERS & TRACK LOADERS  A skid loader is a small loader utilizing four wheels with hydraulic drive that directs power to either. Since the expiration of Bobcat's patent on its quickconnect system. or both. Very similar in appearance and design is the track loader. . sides of the vehicle. newer tractor models are standardizing on that popular format for front end attachments.

Swingloaders are primarily used by the railroad industry to lay rail. Like other loaders many attachments can be attached to the boom such as magnets.SWINGLOADERS    A swing loader is a rigid frame loader with a swinging boom. and buckets. forks. Smaller swingloaders are used in farming applications for loading out. A swinging boom is advantageous where space is limited. The loader is able to lift on all sides and dump off on all sides. The boom can swing 180 degrees or more. .

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