This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Introduction to Well Control
Importance of Well Control
• Provides a direct threat to the safety of the drilling rig and its personnel. • Well control problems are costly in terms of time and money. • Environmental Damage • Increased risk when drilling in unexplored areas with unknown pressure regimes. • Prevention is always better than a cure. • Time is of the essence
Prevention of Blowouts • Alert and well trained crews – Knowledge on causes of kicks – Knowledge of warning signs – Shut-in responsibilities – Equipment – Trained crews to properly operate equipment .
rig managers and drillers must be certified in Blowout Prevention and Well Control Training. • Supervisors. . natural resources and the environment.Rules and Regulations HSE & UKOA • Operators and rig team members must comply with all government regulations. • Regulations are in place to ensure protection of workers.
Rig Team Responsibilities Each Member Has an Important Role in Well Control Driller Kick Detection and Well Shut-In Supervising Drill Crew During Well Control Operations Floorhands. Shakerhands. and All Crew Members Remain Alert to Kick Warning Signs Report to Assigned Station Bill During Well Control Operations Mud Loggers Report Indicators of Formation Pressure Increases to Driller and Operations Supervisor Monitor and Record Circulating System During All Operations . Derrickhands.
Inform Captain or OIM of Well Control Operations so that Emergency Marine Procedures can be Initiated Properly Operator’s Supervisor Overall Responsibility for Well Control Ensure that All Team Members know Their Responsibilities Keep Lines of Communication Open Among all Team Members Brief all Team Members of Planned Operations Service Personnel Know Assigned Duties for Emergency Conditions .Rig Team Responsibilities Each Member Has an Important Role in Kick Prevention Toolpusher Ensure that the Driller and Crew are Properly Deployed Remain on Rig Floor During Start of Tripping Operations Remain on Rig Floor During Start of Kill Operations Brief Crews Prior to Crew Change of All Operations For Offshore Operations .
• You will be expected to check calculations and be pro active in supporting the operation.Your Role in Well Control • Data Engineer must be able to recognise the signs of a developing well control situation. • Important to understand theories and procedures as you are expected to stay at you post during a well control situation. . • Early detection enables the driller to close in the well quickly and minimise the danger.
Basic Principles .
BHCP ECD Pore pressure Normal pressure Fracture pressure Overpressure Underbalance Under pressure .Key Terms • • • • • • • • • • Hydrostatic pressure .BHP Surge/Swab Pressures Dynamic pressure.
Hydrostatic pressure Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by the weight of a static column of fluid. It is a function of the height of the column and the fluid density only May be called Bottom hole pressure (BHP) if combined with pressures induced by pipe movement .
Surge and Swab Pressures Frictional pressure drops due to pipe movement. May be + or – depending on direction of movement Magnitude in static mud depends on. • Wellbore geometry • Mud properties • Running speed .
7. 8. 6. 9. 3. 2.Circulation Friction Losses Total Friction Loss Drill String Safety Valve Mud Pumps 1. 11. 4. Mud Properties Measured Depth Size of the Drill String BHA Components Nozzle Sizes Annular Clearance Circulation Rate Pipe Movement Pipe Rotation Surface Equipment Cuttings Weight . 5. 10.
Usually expressed in psi Magnitude of BHCP depends on • Annular geometry • Mud properties • Flow rate • Pipe rotation • Pipe Movement • Cuttings Weight .Dynamic pressure Bottom Hole Circulating Pressure Hydrostatic + the additional pressure exerted on the bottom of the hole by the movement of the fluid column. The increase in pressure is due to annular friction and the momentum of the mud.
Effective Circulating Density (ECD) When the BHCP is converted to an equivalent mud weight it is known as the ECD BHCP Equivalent Circulating Density = TV Depth (ft) x 0.052 .
052 Trip In BHP = Hyd Press + Surge Press = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.Swab Press = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052 .052 = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density Operation Bottom Hole Pressure EMD/ECD Pump Off BHP = Hydrostatic Pressure Drilling = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052 BHP = Hydrostatic Pressure + APL Trip Out BHP = Hyd Press .
052 = 10.Equivalent Mud/Circulating Density Depth: Annular Pressure Loss: Swab Pressure: Surge Pressure: Operation 12.052 = 15.6 ppg Pump Off Drilling Trip Out Trip In .052 x 16 ppg) + 400 psi BHP = 10.100 ft x 0.100 ft x 0.100 ft x 0.052 = 9817 psi ÷ 12.100 ft ÷ 0.467 psi EMD/ECD = HP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.367 psi ÷ 12.052 = 16 ppg = BHCP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052 = 16.067 psi BHCP = (12.6 ppg = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.367 psi BHP = (12.5 ppg = BHP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.052 = 10.067 psi ÷ 12.052 x 16 ppg) .052 x 16 ppg HP = 10.100 ft ÷ 0.100 ft 300 psi 250 psi 400 psi Mud Weight: 16 ppg Bottom Hole Pressure HP = 12.052 = 16.250 psi BHP = 9817 psi BHP = (12.052 = 10.100 ft ÷ 0.100 ft x 0.100 ft ÷ 0.052 x 16 ppg) + 300 psi BHCP = 10.467 psi ÷ 12.
.Reverse Circulating Bullheading can increase the BHCP upto 10x that of normal circulation due to increased frictional pressure losses from the drillstring. Always Reduce flow rates when reverse circulating.
It is also called formation pressure .Pore pressure Pore pressure is the pressure of the fluid contained in the pore spaces of sediments or the rocks.
. In offshore wells the normal pore fluid is therefore expected to be the local sea water. If no barriers occur to prevent the free movement of fluids within a formation.Normal pressure Also referred to as Normal Formation Hydrostatic Pressure. then it is reasonable to assume that the pore fluid will be homogeneous through all formations from the surface down.
Fracture pressure A formation can be made to fracture by the application of fluid pressure to overcome the least line of resistance within the rock structure. Which of these three stresses is the least can be predicted by the fault activity in the area. Normally fractures will be propagated in direction perpendicular to the least principal stress. .
Leak-Off Test Measures Horizontal Stress Pump Off Leak-off Initial Shut-in Pressure Minimum Horizontal Stress (Sb) Fluid Compression 0 Pressure 10 Shut-in Time (Minutes) Record every minute for 20 minutes or until pressure stabilizes. 20 Linear Increase Pre-existing Fractures Opened by ECD Volume Pumped (litres) .
. Drilling into overpressured strata can be hazardous because overpressured fluids escape rapidly. so careful preparation is made in areas of known overpressure. so that the pressure of the pore fluids increases as overburden increases. Abnormally high pore pressure can occur in areas where burial of fluid filled sediments is so rapid that pore fluids cannot escape.Overpressure Subsurface pressure that is abnormally high. exceeding hydrostatic pressure at a given depth.
Underpressure Any pressure which is less than the local normal pressure is deemed to be underpressure. . Commonly Underpressure is caused by depletion due to production.
The result is a fluid influx or stuck pipe. . The resulting pressure imbalance provides a driving force which can cause fluids to flow from the formation into the well bore.Underbalance Underbalance is of far more importance than overpressure during drilling operations. or for the walls of the well to be pushed into the hole. This occurs where the pore pressure is greater than the mud pressure.
052 Commonly used Gradients Substance Fresh Water Sea Water Formation Water Base Oil Weight 8.374 psi/ft Pressure Gradient is the rate of change of pressure with depth .433 psi/ft 0.33 ppg 8.Pressure Gradients Pressure Gradient (psi/ft) = Density (ppg) x 0.465 psi/ft 0.445 psi/ft 0.2 ppg Gradient 0.6 ppg 8.9 ppg 7.
952 sg / m to bar/m 0.421 sg / ft to psi/ft 0.03 ppg / m to bar/m 0.433 ppg / m to psi/ft 0.Pressure Gradients Pressure Gradient = Density x Constant Useful conversion constants sg / m to psi/m 1.098 sg / ft to bar/ft 0.171 ppg / ft to psi/ft 0.00981 ppg / ft to PPTF 51.052 Kg/m3 / m to Kpa/m 0.0036 .012 ppg / ft to bar/ft 0.
Hydrostatic Pressure Formula PHYD = MW x FT x 0.052) .052 This can be rearranged to: EMW = PHYD / (FT x 0.
Pressure calculations always use True Vertical Depth and NOT Measured Depth .
Hydrostatic Calculation Question What is the overbalance at the bottom of a well at 7493 ft TVD. with a MW of 9.5 ppg and a pore pressure of 3592 psi? Give results in EMW ppg. psi/ft and SG .
052 So 0.28 x 0.052) Then for pore pressure EMW ppg = 3592 / (7493 x 0.28 x 7493 x 0.052 = PSI Then overbalance in PSI = 0.0146 psi/ft . given Pressure Gradient = Density (ppg) x 0.28 ppg EMW Given PPG x FT x 0.5 ppg the overbalance is 0.Hydrostatic Calculation Answer Given EMW = PHYD / (FT x 0.052) So pore pressure = 9.052 = 109 PSI And finally.22 ppg EMW As MW = 9.052 = 0.
. Reasons for this are: • • • • To minimise the risk of lost circulation. To minimise the risk of differential sticking To minimise formation damage.Mud Weight and Formation Pressure Standard drilling practice is to have the mud weight as close as possible to balance with formation pressure. To maintain an optimum ROP.
• • • • Piston effect of swabbing requires a safety margin between the formation pressure and mud weight. Trip margin is added to the mud weight to ensure swabbing does not create under balance. Plot pressure reduction against running speed. Using Swab/Surge Software. A trip margin of 250 to 300 psi is usual
LOST CIRCULATION / UNDERGROUND BLOWOUT FRACTURE PRESSURE = 10,587 psi 10,587
Accelerate Decelerate STATIC STEADY SPEED STATIC Decelerate STEADY SPEED STATIC STEADY CIRCULATION
HP = 9700 psi
ANNULUS FRICTION PRESSURE
9300 FORMATION PRESSURE = 9137 psi KICKS / HOLE INSTABILITY
Bottom Hole Pressure is Affected by Pipe Motion
Kicks and Blowouts
A kick occurs when formation fluid enters the wellbore indicating the well is in a state of imbalance. The drilling margins have been exceeded Kicks can be controlled at the surface if caught early enough. Blowouts occur when a kick cannot be controlled at the surface. • Surface blowout occurs if a well cannot be shut in to prevent kicks reaching the surface • Underground blowout. Uncontrolled flow between two formations. One is kicking and one is loosing.
Any system that can be used to contain pressure and well fluids within the well, wellhead and christmas tree. Barriers may be active or latent Active barriers are already in a condition to contain pressure and well fluids Latent barriers are not normally in a condition which can contain pressure and well fluids. These can be come active with some sort of external intervention.
ACTIVE Conditioned mud/brine Wellhead housing Tubing/Casing Wireline plugs RTTS packer Closed annulus valves Lubricator stuffing box Closed tree valves Closed BOP LATENT Open tree valves Open BOP Safety valve Open wireline BOP’s
Well Control Barriers • Two well control barriers need to be in place at all stages of the well Barrier Primary First Line of Defence Definition Objective Secondary Second Line of Defence Control kicks with Drill to TD without a hydrostatic pressure well control event only. Regain primary well control Tertiary Third Line of Defence . (Normal drilling) Control kicks with Safely kill the kick hydrostatic pressure without the loss of assisted by BOP’s circulation An underground blowout Avoid a surface blowout.
Well is overbalanced but still kicks. balled bit • Overpressured shallow gas sands • High ROP’s in gas bearing formations. • Loss of hydrostatic during or after cementing operations • Incomplete removal of formation fluids from the wellbore or BOP stack during testing or workover operations • Post perforation kick. Least Common . control ROP. rapid pipe movement.Causes of Kicks Most Common • Improper hole fill on trips • Drilling into “known” pressure zones with mud weight to low • Drilling into unexpected abnormally pressured formations • Loss of circulation. Weighting up brine may cause bigger kick as lighter oil migrates reducing the hydrostatic. Fluid level not rate of loss is critical in well control • Swabbing.
•Pinched bit. buoyancy . Loss of ECD. 1200m bubble point. •Decrease in SPP or rise in SPM •Increasing gas values. BG •Well flows with the pump off. > Salinity may > viscosity of mud > ECD •Increasing mud temperature •Cavings •Cutback in DxC or shale density •PWD •Gas cut mud expanding. Always flow check. CG . •Change in mud properties. •Increase in flow returns •Pit gain •Incorrect trip volumes. Pressure may prevent mud draining from the string. undergauge hole •Hookload/WOB variation. Charged fractures. Ballooning .Warning Signs of Kicks •Drilling Break.
Kick Types • Two types of Kick exist: 1 Underbalance Kick – The formation pressure increases to higher than the hydrostatic 2 Induced Kick – Hydrostatic decreases to below formation pressure. .
Kicks • • • Most occur during trips. Most critical time is first 10 stands. Legal requirement to monitor all trips. .
Gas Migration .
410 ft 1 bbl V2 = V2 = 11.5 ppg 6705 ft P2 = HP = 5752 psi 2 bbls 13.© EnCana Corporation Boyles Law .505 psi .Open well with water base mud 821 bbls 16.505 psi x 1 bbl 5752 2 bbls V2 = V2 = 11.505 psi x 1 bbl 14 psi 821 bbls P1 = HP = 11.
Length of Mud 40 bbls Length of Free Rising Gas 20 bbls UNLOAD POINT! Length of Mud = Length of Gas 10 bbls Unload Depth = Length of Gas Kick x TVD .Water Base Mud and Open Wellbore Unload Point Normally the Driller should be able to detect the expanding gas with pit level and flow monitoring equipment.© EnCana Corporation Gas Behavior .
100 ft Unload Depth = 2130 ft .© EnCana Corporation Gas Behavior .Water Base Mud and Open Wellbore Unload Point Normally the Driller should be able to detect the expanding gas with pit level and flow monitoring equipment. Length of Mud 40 bbls Length of Free Rising Gas 20 bbls UNLOAD POINT! Length of Mud = Length of Gas Unload Depth = 10 bbls 375 ft x 12.
052 10 bbls Critical Influx = Volume 0.© EnCana Corporation Gas Behavior . This condition is extremely hazardous since violent unloading of the well can occur with no warning to the Driller. .5000 psi depending on the type of OBM and wellbore conditions.. Liquid Gas in Solution “Breaks Out” 10 bbls WELL SUDDENLY UNLOADS! Bubble point pressures range from 1500 . Bubble Point Depth = Bubble Point Pressure ÷ MW ÷ 0.Oil Base Mud and Open Wellbore Unload Point Bubble Point Depth 10 bbls The real danger is when the bubble point depth and the unload condition depth are equal.25 x (Bubble Point Depth)2 x Annular Capacity Total Vertical Depth Critical Influx Volume is the initial kick volume that will unload the mud from the bubble point depth to the surface.
. = 15.Oil Base Mud and Open Wellbore Unload Point Bubble Point Depth 10 bbls The real danger is when the bubble point depth and the unload condition depth are equal. This condition is extremely hazardous since violent unloading of the well can occur with no warning to the Driller.5000 psi depending on the type of OBM and wellbore conditions.7 bbls Critical Influx Volume is the initial kick volume that will unload the mud from the bubble point depth to the surface.052 = 3496 ft. . Liquid Gas in Solution “Breaks Out” 10 bbls WELL SUDDENLY UNLOADS! Bubble point pressures range from 1500 .© EnCana Corporation Gas Behavior . 10 bbls Critical Influx = Volume 0.100 ft. Bubble point depth = 2000 psi ÷ 11 ppg ÷ 0.0623 bbl/ft 12.25 x (3496 ft)2 x 0.
© EnCana Corporation Explosive Unloading Type 1 A small isolated bubble of gas is swabbed in (unnoticed). circulated to the surface (no expansion or further kick indications). where it expands and is also accelerated upwards by trailing bubbles of gas expanding underneath segments of mud. The net effect is an instantaneous (a couple of seconds at most) very high gas rate that could result in a flash fire if not effectively dealt with. .
. As well as enough gas at surface to cause a flash fire. the well will probably become much further underbalanced and the "tight" zone will flow faster and perhaps a second (permeable) zone will become underbalanced and will also start to flow. The net effect of this influx is that there is a column of gas cut mud from the bit right up to the rotary table. The net effect is a "domino" unloading of the well. whereby a large part of the annulus is unloaded of mud.© EnCana Corporation Explosive Unloading Type 2 A slow continuous flow from a tight highpressured formation enters the wellbore over a long period of time undetected.
spills and leaks.© EnCana Corporation Practices to Prevent Unloading Tripping Limit tripping speeds to minimize swab / surge Monitor hole fill in and out of the hole Drilling Adjust detection equipment alarm as low as possible Circulate BU at any increase in gas levels No more than one “connection” in hole Flow check all drilling breaks Be alert to activities that allow undetectable influx volumes Swabbing when picking up off bottom Drilling through gas sands Mud transfers. partial losses Circulate bottoms up through open choke with BOP closed Especially the last 1500 . of bottoms up . pulling wet pipe.3000 ft.
© EnCana Corporation Gas Through Cement Kicks .
© EnCana Corporation Gas Through Cement Kicks A Initially after cement placement. slurry behaves as a fluid and transmits full hydrostatic pressure. . meanwhile fluid is lost from cement slurry to permeable formations causing volume reductions. B Static gel strength development begins.
permitting gas to enter and percolate through the unset cement. Together these factors cause loss of overbalance pressure. Gas may channel to a lower pressure zone or back to surface. D Gas percolation leads to formation of a discrete gas channel through the unset cement.© EnCana Corporation Gas Through Cement Kicks C Cement slurry static gel strength reduces transmission of hydrostatic pressure simultaneously as volume losses occur. . these channels will remain in the cement. Once formed.
End of Module Summary -Key Terms • • • • • • • • Overpressure • Pore pressure • Overburden • Hydrostatic pressure Fracture pressure • Normal pressure • • Underbalance • Under pressure • Hydrocarbon Reservoirs Aquifiers Disequilibrium Compaction Charged Sands Aquathermal Pressuring Clay Diagenesis Tectonics Diapirism .
circulate additional bottoms up and/or condition mud prior to POOH .© EnCana Corporation Condition Mud Prior to Trips Check the mud prior to trips!! Mud Engineer and Derrickhand/Shakerhand •Should not be more than 0.1 ppg difference weight in and out •Mud properties out should be within prescribed limits •If returning mud/fluid is gas cut .
Know how to use your “slugging” formulas Pit Gain = From Slug Slug Volume x (Slug Density . Don’t chase the slug with extra volume Be aware of the hydrostatic increase due to accumulated slugging.Mud Density) (Mud Density) Depth Slug Falls = Length of Slug x .Mud Density) (Mud Density) (Slug Density .© EnCana Corporation Slugging Considerations Have a standard procedure for slugging the pipe Know the ‘pit gain” caused by slug falling.
16 ppg) 16 ppg .© EnCana Corporation Slugging Considerations Drill String Safety Valve Mud Density: Slug Density: Slug Volume: DP Cap: Slug Length: 16 ppg 18 ppg 40 bbls 0.0 bbls (18 ppg .16 ppg) 16 ppg Depth Slug = 2322 ft x Falls Depth Slug = Falls 290 ft (18 ppg .017220 bbl/ft 2322 ft Mud Pumps Pit Gain = 40 bbls x Pit Gain = 5.
.Establish Baseline Criteria Measure SPR’s as high as 5 bbl/min rotating and static. Record drain down volumes and pit changes when degasser and centrifuges are started. Establish baseline ECD’s while rotating and reciprocating the drill string. Run hydraulics for swab and surge pressure correlation and effects of mud compressibility. Record PWD readings from reciprocating the drill string with the pump off. Record PWD readings. Establish flow on connection footprint following drillout. Record PWD readings.
.Baseline Conditions A baseline well condition for mud compressibility will be established in cased hole for a number of circulating and rotating conditions just before drilling out Baseline tests will include PWD responses. All changes in the well can be referenced to this baseline.
Acceptable Flowchecks • The Flow check should have monitored the well for a minimum of 15 minutes. . • Bleed off any drill pipe pressure before conducting a flow check. • A decreasing trend of flow can be identified from a plot of Volume Vs Time.this will help prevent sticking and will break up the gels. Always rotate pipe slowly) when conducting a flow check . • The rate and volume of flow follows the trend seen at previous flow checks.
The best times for slow checks are: • Before pulling off bottom • After pulling the first few (5) stands • When there is a discrepancy in the trip record • Half way up the open hole • At the shoe • Prior to pulling the BHA into the BOP stack • When out of the hole .© EnCana Corporation Flow Checks During Trips It is a good practice to check the well for flow during trips.
This has consequences for both: •The size of an influx when detected •And the way in which an influx will act These areas will be examined in this presentation . This is caused by the ability of gas to dissolve in an oil based mud.© EnCana Corporation Gas Solubility in Oil Based Mud A gas influx in an oil based mud will not behave in the same manner as a gas influx in a water based mud.
Whilst Circulating Bottoms Up • In an OBM there will be very little increase in pit gain until the gas breaks out of the mud. This can lead to a very rapid pit gain • In a WBM there will be a continual increase in pit gain as the influx is circulated out. The speed of increase will get bigger as the circulation continues • The influx in an OBM will arrive at the surface later than it would in a WBM • As mud is lost a secondary kick may start .© EnCana Corporation Gas Solubility in Oil Based Mud Conclusions .
© EnCana Corporation Gas Solubility in Oil Based Mud Flowcheck in a Deep Well 16 12 W BM OBM Pit Gain 8 ( bbl ) 4 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Time ( minutes ) .
© EnCana Corporation Gas Solubility in Oil Based Mud Riser Unloading 20 16 Pit Gain ( bbl ) 12 8 4 0 0 5 10 W BM OBM 15 20 25 30 Time ( minutes ) .
© EnCana Corporation Hydrates .
© EnCana Corporation Hydrates Inhibition with methanol .
• An emulsion mud acts more like an OBM than a WBM unless free gas is present • Gas dissolves preferentially in the oil until it becomes saturated • An emulsion mud will reach saturation before an OBM.© EnCana Corporation Gas Solubility in Oil Based Mud Circulating out a Drilled Kick From 6000 ft Well Comparison with a 50:50 oil water emulsion mud. once mud is saturated free gas will form .
Influx Behavior – – – – Dissolved gas does not migrate Negative flow check does not mean no influx Influx in OBM will take longer to arrive at surface Gas break out of OBM can be rapid .© EnCana Corporation Gas Solubility in Oil Based Mud Conclusions .
832 psi/ft x 0.058 psi/ft or 5.832 psi/ft x (0.364 bbl/ft + 0.364 bbl/ft + 0.00919 bbl/ft ) = = Hydrostatic Loss per ft of Pipe Pulled (0.00919 bbl/ft + 0.01722 bbl/ft ) = 0.5 psi/std .91 psi/std Mud Gradient x (Pipe Displacement + Pipe Capacity) Wet Pipe = (Annular Capacity + Pipe Capacity) 0.02 psi/ft or 1.01722 bbl/ft ) 0.© EnCana Corporation Hole Fill Requirements Proper hole filling procedures prevents the loss of hydrostatic pressure as pipe is tripped in or out of the well Dry Pipe Hydrostatic Loss per ft of Pipe Pulled Mud Gradient x Pipe Displacement = (Annular Capacity + Pipe Capacity) (0.01722 bbl/ft ) = (0.
© EnCana Corporation Hole Fill Requirements Proper hole filling procedures prevents the loss of hydrostatic pressure as pipe is tripped in or out of the well Proper Hole Fill Procedure Requires: Determine the maximum acceptable loss of hydrostatic between fills Use trip sheets and accurately measure mud volumes Proper manifolding of valves and equipment Responsible monitoring and communicating results Dry Pipe Hydrostatic Loss per ft of Pipe Pulled Hydrostatic Loss per ft of Pipe Pulled Mud Gradient x Pipe Displacement = (Annular Capacity + Pipe Capacity) Mud Gradient x (Pipe Displacement + Pipe Capacity) = (Annular Capacity + Pipe Capacity) Wet Pipe .
If No Well Flow: Resume operations and continue to monitor kick warning signs. Know the flow back volumes for your rig’s surface lines. If on bottom: Circulate bottoms up through the choke for verification that no influx has occurred. 4. If off bottom: Strip to bottom and circulate bottoms-up. Position the top drive for access/installation/operation of string safety valves..15 minutes. Flow may be strong. Stop the pump. . Once the pumps are off. Stop the rotary 2. Engage the hole fill pump. Monitor the trip tank for gain or loss 10 .© EnCana Corporation Kick Detection Well Flow Check Procedure While Drilling 1. If the Well Flows: Shut In Immediately If Well Flow is Very Slight: Shut-in the well on the annular. 6. Align the flowline to the trip tank. ECD is lost. Be ready to shut-in. 5. 3.
© EnCana Corporation Overbalance Key Prevention Factor Key Points • Overbalance controls formation pressure • Monitor and record mud/fluid densities in and out on a continuous basis • Overbalance is reduced when tripping out the hole because of swab pressure • A 250-300 psi trip margin should be maintained as a minimum • Mud densities must be increased when drilling abnormally pressured zones .
© EnCana Corporation Kick Detection Key Prevention Factor Key Points • Early kick detection minimizes the severity of the kick • Trend monitoring is of utmost importance to early kick detection • The rig team must communicate warning signs to appropriate supervisors to ensure kick prevention • Detection systems such as flow show devices and pit level indicators must be calibrated regularly and maintained in proper working order .
© EnCana Corporation Hole Problems Key Prevention Factor Key Points • Hole problems can indicate loss of well control – Loss of circulation – loss of hydrostatic – Torque and drag increases – Stuck pipe – working pipe during well control may induce loss of circulation – Gas cut mud or contamination by H2S or CO2 can lead to loss of .
© EnCana Corporation OBM Rheology Effects .
V1 shut-in 5. 3.345 ft Gas Gradient = 0. Calculate the Kick Tolerance (Assume 0. Report the Kick Tolerance as the lessor of V1 shut-in and V2 shut-in.1 psi/ft 6. (Use Boyle’s Law) 7.Kick Tolerance The maximum volume of gas (based on a given pore pressure) that can be circulated from the well without causing excessive mud loss at the casing shoe. Calculate the maximum length of gas beneath shoe (to cause SICP = MASP).5” Drill Collars 8.5 ppg Kick Intensity) 1.5” hole TD @ 14. Calculate the maximum allowable underbalance. 4. Calculate this volume at shut-in. Calculate the MASP for shoe Leak-Off Mud Density = 16 ppg 9 5/8” Shoe @ 12. Calculate what V shoe would be at shut-in V2 shut-in. V shoe LOT = 18 ppg 5” Drill Pipe 510 ft of 6.075’ TVD 2. Calculate this volume at the shoe. .
16 ppg ) x 12. Calculate the hydrostatic pressure loss due to influx including the kick intensity.345 ft Gas Gradient = 0.5” Drill Collars MAX GAS LENGTHshoe = HP LOSS ÷ (GRmud . HYD PRESS LOSS = MASP .075 ft x 0.052 = 1256 ppg .936 psi/ft) 5” Drill Pipe OH DC ANN VOL = 0.1 psi/ft) = 1206 ft 8.052 = 1.1 psi/ft .345 ft ÷ 0.(KICK INTENSITY x TVD x 0.052) = 1256 psi 2. LOT = 18 ppg (0.832 psi/ft .0459 bbl/ft MASP = (LOT EMW .MW) x SHOE TVD x 0.832 psi/ft 9 5/8” Shoe @ 12.075’ TVD OH DP ANN VOL = 0.68 ppg 3.Kick Tolerance .052 = 1256 psi ÷ 14.(0. Calculate the maximum length of gas beneath shoe (to cause SICP = MASP).worked example Calculate the Kick Tolerance 1.5” hole TD @ 14. MAX ALLOWABLE UNDERBALANCE= MASP ÷ TVD ÷ 0.0. Calculate the maximum allowable underbalance.345 ft x 0.0291 bbl/ft 510’ of 6. Calculate the MASP for shoe Leak-Off 1256 Mud Density = 16 ppg Mud Gradient = 0.GRgas) = 883 psi ÷ (0.5 ppg x 14.052) = 883 psi 4.052 MASP = (18 ppg .
LDC ) x OH DP ANN VOL) = (510 ft x 0.345 ft Gas Gradient = 0.302 psi ÷ 11.3 bbls 8. Report the Kick Tolerance as the lessor of V1 shut-in and V2 shut-in.36 bbls OH DC ANN VOL = 0.075’ TVD OH DP ANN VOL = 0.5” Drill Collars 7.5” hole TD @ 14. = V shoe x LOPSHOE ÷ HP @TVDBOTTOM = 55.1 psi/ft 8.36 bbls x 11.0291 bbl/ft 510’ of 6.worked example Calculate the Kick Tolerance 5. V1 shut-in 1256 Mud Density = 16 ppg Mud Gradient = 0.0459 bbl/ft = 55.0459 bbl/ft) = 46. Calculate this volume at the shoe.Kick Tolerance . V shoe V shoe = MAX GAS LENGTH x OH DP ANN VOL = 1206 ft x 0. 52.0291 bbl/ft) + ((1206’ .960 psi = 52. (Use Boyle’s Law) V2 shut-in.936 psi/ft) 5” Drill Pipe LDC x OH DC ANN VOL + ((MAX GAS LENGTH .79 bbls 6. Using Boyle’s Law calculate what V shoe would be at shut-in V2 shut-in. Calculate this volume at shut-in.832 psi/ft 9 5/8” Shoe @ 12.0459 bbl/ft If the gas length is equal to or less than than the drill collar length then: V1 shut-in = MAX GAS LENGTH x OH DC ANN VOL If the gas length is greater than the drill collar length then: V1 shut-in = LOT = 18 ppg (0.3 bbls .510’) x 0.
6 0.345 ft 1256 psi = 1.0 MAX UNDERBALANCE (ppg) 1.6 1.68 ppg Max kick size that can be safely circulated to the shoe without exceeding MASP = 52.38 bbls 70.4 Max Allowable Underbalance = 1.510’) x 0.052 x TVD MASP Leak-off = 0.0291 bbl/ft + ((1715’ .052 x 14.© EnCana Corporation Kick Tolerance .Giinflux) = = 1715 ft (0.832 psi/ft .38 bbls 1.1 psi/ft) Plot the Max Kick Vol Allowed at Shut-in Plot Equivalent = Max Kick Vol to Shoe @ Shut-in = 510 ft x 0.302 ft 11.0459 ) = 70.2 0 10 20 (Vk)max2 (Vk)max1 74.2 1.3 bbls MGL x DPAV x Pfrac @ shoe = Phydrostatic @ TD = 74.15 bbls 30 40 Kick Size bbls 50 60 70 .8 1.960 psi 2.68 ppg Max Length of Gas (MGL) = (No Kick Intensity.0.0 0.4 0.8 0.15 bbls 1715 ft x 0.0459 bbl/ft x 11. Swab Case) (Gmud .Graphical Analysis Plot Max Allowable Underbalance MASP 1256 psi = 0.
© EnCana Corporation Kick Tolerance .4 MAX UNDERBALANCE (ppg) 1.5 ppg Kick Intensity Kick Tolerant Region 1.8 1.Graphical Analysis Kick Tolerant Region 100 1.14 bbls 30 40 50 52.4 0.2 0 10 20 Max kick size that can be safely circulated to the shoe without exceeding MASP = 52.38 bbls (Vk)max1 70.6 Max Allowable Underbalance = 1.3 bbls (Vk)max2 74.6 0.3 bbls 60 70 Kick Size (bbls) .68 ppg 0.0 0.8 0.2 1.
the choke line is applying additional unwanted pressure to the formation. •After any significant change in mud properties or type. Drill String Safety Valve Mud Pumps . •After any mud weight change. The amount of choke line back pressure can be determined by knowing the slow pump pressure for the system.© EnCana Corporation Choke Line Friction Pressure The choke line friction pressure must be removed when circulating kicks from the well. Choke Line Friction Pressure Should be Measured: •After a round trip. When the well is shut-in and circulation is through the choke. •Each time the choke and kill lines are flushed. Remember!! Choke line friction pressure is the amount of pressure loss when circulating at slow pump rates through the choke line with the BOP closed.
. •After any mud weight change. the choke is used to apply “controlling” pressure to the formation. Drill String Safety Valve Mud Pumps Slow Pump Pressure Should be Measured: •Each tour. •After any significant change in mud properties or type. The amount of choke back pressure can be determined by knowing the slow pump pressure for the system.© EnCana Corporation Slow Pump Pressures The slow pump pressure is used a s a reference pressure when circulating kicks from the well. •After each BHA change or trip. •Every 500 ft of new hole drilled. Remember!! Circulating pressure is the sum of all the friction pressures in the circulating system or flow path. When the well is shut-in and circulation is through the choke.
. Lead floorhand or AD should record circulating rate and drill pipe pressure reading from the choke panel and standpipe.© EnCana Corporation Slow Pump Pressures • Slow circulating rates should be pre-determined and should be based on the following. – – – – – – – Rig barite mixing capability ECD on open hole Reaction time for choke operator Pump & pressure limitations Capacity of mud gas separator Choke line friction (floaters) Convenience and ease of use • • Pipe depth should be near bottom (within 50 ft) Procedure: – – – – Position string Rotate slowly Reduce pump speed to desired slow circulating rate Allow drill pipe pressure to stabilize and the driller should record circulating rate and pump pressure from the driller’s console.
Drilling Programs What information should they contain • • • • • • • Casing requirements Expected formation pressures Expected formation changes H2S potential Identification of loss zones Kick tolerance Stick diagram for posting in dog house as per regulations .
© EnCana Corporation OBM Density Effects .
© EnCana Corporation Circulation System Estimating Pump Pressures New Pump Pressure Drill String Safety Valve = Old Pump Pressure x ( New SPM Old SPM ) 2 Mud Pumps New Pump Pressure = Old Pump Pressure x ( New Mud Density Old Mud Density ) .
stripping not feasible •No pipe in hole •Surface pressures need to be reduced .Drilling Wellbores Key Points Drill String Safety Valve • Used to pump influx back into formation • Depends upon: Mud Pumps •Amount of open hole •Influx location compared to permeable zone • When to Bullhead •Large volume of influx •Excess surface pressure •H2S •Pipe off bottom .© EnCana Corporation Bullheading .
© EnCana Corporation Bullheading .Drilling Wellbores Important Considerations • Characteristics / condition of open hole • BOPE & casing rating (wear?) • Type of influx & relative permeability of the formation • Quality of the filter cake • Consequence of fracturing open hole • Influx position .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.