Problem Solving Guide

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IN V EST IG A T E CO RRECT & ST A N D A R D ISE
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PDCA

C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E ID EN T IFY T EA M RO LES IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N T O V E R IF Y D A T A COUNTERM EASURE T R A IN IN G

EN LIG H T EN & IM PLEM EN T
CA R R Y O U T T R IA LS T O PR O VE C A U SE S A N A LY SE D A T A T O U N D E R ST A N D H O W PR O BLEM O CCU R S

A Guide to a Team Approach to Problem Solving
S D BELLAMY - Group Total Quality Manager - 22 August 2000 ( 5TH Revision - Health Version )

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IN VEST IG AT E CO RRECT & ST AN D AR D ISE
REVIEW FEED BACK & M A K E CO RRECT IO N S ST A N D A R D ISE D O , CH ECK , ACT

C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES B EN C H M A R K B EST P R A C T IC E ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N T O V E R IF Y D A T A COUNTERM EASURE T R A IN IN G

EN LIG H T EN & IM PLEM EN T
CA R R Y O U T T R IA LS T O PR O V E C A U SE S A N A LY SE D A T A T O U N D E R ST A N D H O W PR O BLEM O CCU R S

1 Introduction to PDCA Problem Solving Cycle. 2 PDCA Cycle……. 3 Key Steps in PDCA….. 4 Defining the Problem 5 Selection of TQ Techniques used in PDCA. 6 Using the 14 Techniques. 7 PDCA Reviews - Racetrack. 8 Using PDCA Workbook. 9 Summary

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REVIEW FEED BACK & M A K E C O R R EC T IO N S ST A N D A R D ISE D O , CH ECK , ACT

C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

ID EN T IFY P O SSIB L E C A U SES B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EV ALU A T E & V ALID AT E
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N T O V E R IF Y D A T A CO UN TERM EASURE T R A IN IN G

EN LIG H T EN & IM PLEM EN T
CAR RY O U T T RIALS T O PR O V E C A U SE S A N A LY SE D A T A T O U N D E R ST A N D H O W PRO BLEM O CCURS

PDCA was created by W Edwards Deming in the 1950’s as an easy to follow Problem Solving Cycle. Deming was tasked with helping Japan rebuild its economy in the 1950’s. His purpose was to use PDCA with a Continuous Improvement process to help rebuild Japanese industries so that they could compete in the world market in the future.

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C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N T O V E R IF Y D A T A COUNTERM EASURE T R A IN IN G

EN LIG H T EN & IM PLEM EN T
C A R R Y O U T T R IA LS T O PR O V E C A U SE S A N A LY SE D A T A T O U N D E R ST A N D H O W PRO BLEM O CCU RS

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CO RRECT & S T A N DA RDI S E
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I N VES T I GA T E

DET ERM I N E N EEDS  

DI A GN O S T I C: REVI EW CU RREN T PR A C T I C E S . BEN CH M A RKI N G: SUM M ARI SE AN D C O M PA R E B E S T PR A C T I C E S .

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EV A LU A T E & V A LI D A T E
 P IL O T T R A IN IN G PRO G RAM FEEDBACK

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 DEFI N E R E S PO N S I B I L I T I E S : W HY, W HAT & HO W RECO GN I T I O N . RECO GN I S E T H E CO N T RI BU T I O N O F O T H ERS .

Purpose:- To INVESTIGATE the current situation & understand fully the nature of the problem being solved.

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Key Steps:Diagnostic - Review Current Practice.
Define the Problem - Who,What,Where and When . Write Team Mission statement. Brainstorm potential causes of problem using simple Brainstorming or a Cause & Effect Diagram. Identify & agree potential Root Causes prioritising using Paired Comparisons or by Consensus Rankings and asking the 5 WHY’s Set up methods to capture ‘REAL’ data. Implement ‘QUICK FIXES’ to protect the customer Make Process Flow Diagram Analyse ‘REAL DATA’ & show graphically.

Benchmarking - Compare Best Practices
Brainstorm where else may they have this problem, find out what they do to resolve it.

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CO RRECT & ST A N DA RDISE
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IN VEST IGAT E

DET ERM I N E N EEDS  

DI A GN O ST I C: REVI EW CU RREN T PR A C T I C E S . BEN CH M A RKI N G: S U M M A RI S E A N D C O M PA R E B E S T PR A C T I C E S .

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EVA LU A T E & VA LI DA T E
 P IL O T T R A IN IN G PRO G RAM FEEDBACK

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 DEFI N E R E S PO N S I B I LI T I E S : W H Y, W HAT & H O W RECO GN I T I O N . RECO GN I S E T H E CO N T RI BU T I O N O F O T HERS.

Purpose:- To Enlighten the Team as to the Real Problem by analysing the Data and defining and implementing a solution plan.

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Key Steps :Enlighten Brainstorm solutions. Rank solutions to identify best impact. Carry out Failure Prevention Analysis. Carry out Solution Effect Analysis. Create Project Plan to implement solutions. Put measures of performance in place using Control Charts or Check Sheets. Implement Carry out Project Plan. Educate, train & communicate

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Purpose:- To
monitor effect of implementation of project plan & find Countermeasures to further improve the solution.
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CO RRECT & S T A N DA RDI S E
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I N VEST IGAT E

DET ERM I N E N EEDS

DI A GN O S T I C: REVI EW CU RREN T PR A C T I C E S . BEN CH M A RKI N G: S U M M A RI SE A N D C O M PA R E B E S T PR A C T I C E S .

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EVA LU A T E & VA LI DA T E
 P IL O T T R A IN IN G PRO G RAM FEEDBACK

EN LI GH T EN & I M PL E M E N T
 DEFI N E R E S PO N S I B I L I T I E S : W HY, W HAT & HO W RECO GN I T I O N . RECO GN I SE T H E CO N T RI BU T I O N O F O T H ERS .

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Key Steps :Evaluate Collect data to monitor performance improvements. Involve & train those affected by solution plan. Communicate & feedback. Validate Resolve any issues by finding Countermeasures to ensure solution plan continues.

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Key Actions :Correct & Standardise Decide if solution is effective & either integrate into normal working practice or abandon. If plan is abandoned, ask what has been learned by the process and, restart the project. Determine new target & start PDCA cycle again.

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Purpose:- To Review Continuously the Performance Measure & make adjustments as required. Integrate new situation into Normal Working Practice. Start PDCA Cycle again.

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CO RRECT & STA N DA RDI SE

IN VEST IGAT E

DET ERM I N E N EEDS  

REVI EW FEED BA CK & M A KE CO RRECT I O N S ST AN DARDI SE DO , CH ECK, A CT

DI A GN O S T I C: REVI EW CU RREN T PR A C T I C E S . BEN CH M A RKI N G: S U M M A RI SE A N D C O M PA R E B E S T PR A C T I C E S .

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EVA LU A T E & VA LI D A T E
 P IL O T T R A IN IN G PRO G RAM FEEDBACK

EN LI GH T EN & I M PL E M E N T
 DEFI N E R E S PO N S I B I L I T I E S : W HY, W HAT & HO W RECO GN I T I O N . RECO GN I SE T H E CO N T RI BU T I O N O F O T H ERS .

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IN V E ST IG A T E CO RRECT & ST A N D A R D ISE
R EV IEW FEED B AC K & M A K E C O R R EC T IO N S ST A N D A R D ISE D O , CH ECK , ACT

C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

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ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

Customer Satisfaction

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N T O V E R IF Y D A T A COUNTERM EASURE

EN LIG H T EN & IM PLEM EN T
CAR R Y O U T T R IALS T O PR O V E C A U SE S A N A L Y SE D A T A T O U N D E R ST A N D H O W PRO BLEM O CCU RS

CHECK

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Checklist of PDCA Approach
Have you got:
a b c d

Sponsor - ( Person who instigates the Problem Solving Session ) Team Leader. Facilitator Team Members

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Problem Solving Process:

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1 Define Problem & Objective ( & Do Quick Fix ) 2 Identify Likely Causes 3 Identify Major & Root Causes 4 Develop Solutions / Agree Action Plans 5 Implement action Plan 6 Determine Effectiveness of plan 7 Standardise Results / Implement in all relevant areas.

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Techniques to use with PDCA Selection Chart
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T e c h n iq u e
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BR AIN ST O R M IN G CAUSE & EFFECT CHECK SHEETS PAR ETO AN ALYSIS
CO N CEN T R AT IO N D IAG R AM S

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PR O CESS FLO W CH AR TS.
PER FO R M AN CE M EASU R IN G

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PAIR ED CO M PAR ISO N S

10 IM PACT D IAG R AM S 11 FO R CE FIELD AN ALYSIS
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                   

SO LU TIO N EFFECT D IAG R AM SCH ED U LE or PR O JECT PLAN
F A IL U R E P R E V E N T IO N A N A L Y S IS

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Defining the Problem in
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SMART form.

What is this ? It is the first step in the PDCA problem solving cycle. Why do it ? To ensure that the whole Team is clear about what their Goal is. When do I use it ? Who does this ?. ? How de we do it ? By considering each of the following aspects of the issue being addressed. Who is the problem experienced by ( Stakeholder )? What is the problem ? Where is the problem ? When is the problem experienced ? Use these statements as a “Sanity Check” to refer back to at later stages of the project to check if on track. At the first Team meeting. The Team.

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Writing a Team Mission Statement in

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SMART form.
Specific Measurable Achievable Realistic Time based

Write a statement using the following SMART rules.

Examples To reduce “Annual Lost working Days due to Back related Problems” in the “Stores Department” by 50% in 6 months. To reduce “Risk of causing Back Related Injuries” in the Packing Department by 30% in 5 days.

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The Quick Fix
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What is this ? - This is a way of protecting the Customer from the Effect of the Problem being investigated. Why do it ? - Because the Cause of the problem may take some time to resolve. ( It stops the patient bleeding to death.) When do I use it ? - Immediately the problem is identified. Who does this ?. ? - The Team

How do we do this ? Typical Quick Fixes may include for example:Several Lifts where one is the normal Additional but time-consuming lifting gear 100 % Manual Inspection of product on line by operator Audit Inspection after final Operation. Multi Pass Operations. Pre Process Manual Inspection. They are usually, but not always, Time Consuming and Expensive. If , for example, the problem was a “ leaking roof due to a cracked tile “ The quick fix could be To put a bucket under the leak. The final solution could be Replace the Tile, Check condition of other tiles annually.

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Technique 1 DO

BRAINSTORMING
g e n e r a t in g I d e a s o r s u g g e s t io n s v e r y

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W h a t is it ? I t is a m e t h o d o f q u ic k ly a n d c r e a t iv e ly . W h y d o it ? -

S o e v e r y m e m b e r o f t h e T e a m c o n t r ib u t e s .

W h e r e is it u s e d ? - M o s t o f t e n in t h e T e a m r o o m , a n d o t h e r w is e a n y w h e r e t h a t t h e r e is a T e a m a n d a F lip c h a r t . W h e n is it u s e d . ? d e f in e d . W h o u s e s it ? S T EP 1    F in d a q u ie t r o o m w it h a F lip C h a r t a n d h a v e P e n s , P o s t I t s , D r y w ip e M a r k e r s , B lu e T a c a v a ila b le . D e c id e w h o w ill a c t a s t h e T e a m S c r ib e . W r it e d o w n t h e P r o b le m o r S it u a t io n b e in g S t u d ie d o r I n v e s t ig a t e d a t t h e T O P o f a F lip C h a r t . G iv e a ll t h e T e a m M e m b e r s a f e w P o s t I t s . T h e n in d iv id u a lly f o r 5 m in u t e s w r it e d o w n o n t h e P o s t I t s ( 1 id e a p e r s h e e t ) a n y id e a s o r s u g g e s t io n s . W h e n id e a s h a v e d r ie d u p , S t ic k a ll t h e id e a s o n t o a F lip C h a r t a n d G r o u p a n y s im ila r id e a s . T h e n f o r u p t o 10 m in u t e s , w o r k in g a r o u n d t h e r o o m , a d d a n y f u r t h e r id e a s t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n m is s e d . U s u a lly w h e n t h e p r o b le m b e in g s o lv e d is id e n t if ie d a n d C a n in v o lv e a n y o n e .

H o w is B r a in s t o r m in g D o n e ? -

S T EP 2    

STEP 3  A s a T e a m d i s c u s s e a c h i d e a a n d d e c i d e i f t h e y a r e T o t a lly , P a r t ia lly o r N o t in t h e C o n t r o l o f t h e T e a m .  S e p a r a t e o u t t h e " T o t a lly " i d e a s .  P r i o r i t i s e t h e m u s i n g " I m p a c t D ia g r a m s " o r " P a ir e d C o m p a r is o n s " . STEP 4  T h e T e a m m u s t d e c id e if t h e r e is a n e e d t o in v o lv e s o m e o n e e ls e , in t h e T e a m , t o r e s o l v e t h e P a r t ia lly o r N o t in C o n t r o l i t e m s .

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Technique 2 DO

CAUSE & EFFECT

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W h a t is it ? - I t i s a m e t h o d o f B r a in s t o r m in g C a u s e s o f a p r o b l e m o r s i t u a t i o n . W h y d o it ? - T o h e l p t h e T e a m c a n f o c u s o n s p e c i f i c t h e m e s a n d g r o u p s o f c a u s e s . W h e r e is it u s e d ? - I n t h e t e a m r o o m o r a t p l a c e o f w o r k W h e n d o w e u s e it ? - W h e n a p r o b l e m o r e f f e c t i s d e f i n e d a n d p o s s i b l e c a u s e s a r e needed. W h o u s e s it ? - E v e r y o n e . H ow d o w e use t h e m ? S t e p 1 - O n a la r g e b o a r d o r f lip c h a r t .
M AN

C o n s t r u c t t h e d ia g r a m b e lo w .

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W rite th e E ffe c t in h e re .

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S t e p 2 - A S c r ib e W ill t a k e PO S S I B L E C A U S E S f r o m r o u n d t h e t a b le in T u r n u n t il D r ie d u p . A s p e r e x a m p le b e lo w .
M EN O p e ra to r n o t T ra in e d M a c h in e s M a c h in e n o t C a p a b le M a c h in e G a u g in g F a u lty O v e r S iz e B o re W ro n g G ra d e G rin d in g W h e e l C o o la n t M ix W ro n g M a te ria ls M e th o d s W ro n g M a s te r Is s u e d . N o P o s t b o re G a u g e

S t e p 3 - P r io r it is e a n d S e le c t t h o s e t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d , b y a l l o c a t i n g V O T E S t o e a c h T e a m m e m b e r w h o a d d t h e ir c h o ic e s t o t h e D ia g r a m . A s p e r D ia g r a m B e lo w .
M EN O p e ra to r n o t T ra in e d M a c h in e s M a c h in e n o t C a p a b le M a c h in e G a u g in g F a u lty

3

5
O v e r S iz e B o re

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W ro n g G ra d e G rin d in g W h e e l C o o la n t M ix W ro n g

W ro n g M a s te r Is s u e d .

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N o P o s t b o re G a u g e M a te ria ls M e th o d s

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Technique 3 DO

CHECKSHEETS

CH ECK

W h a t a r e t h e y ? - T h e y a r e a m e t h o d o f r e c o r d in g f a c t u a l d a t a o v e r a p e r i o d o f t im e . W h y d o it ? - S o y o u w i ll b e a b l e t o c o n f i r m t h e C a u s e s o f t h e p r o b le m . W h e r e is it u s e d ? - A t t h e p la c e w h e r e t h e in v e s t i g a t i o n is t a k in g p la c e . W h e n is it u s e d ? - A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l b r a i n s t o r m i n g , w h e n r e a l d a t a is r e q u ir e d t o c o n f ir m in it ia l id e a s . W h o u s e s it ? - T h e t e a m s h o u l d n o m i n a t e a n d t r a i n v o lu n t e e r s t o f ill t h e s h e e t in . H o w is it u s e d ? D e s ig n a s h e e t s im ila r t o t h e o n e b e lo w , d e c id e o n d a t a t o b e c o lle c t e d a n d w h e n . T r a in t h e p e r s o n w h o w ill c o lle c t the d at a. Week Week Week Week
Cumulative

Cause
Weights too Heavy Reach too far Incorrect Posture Previous Injury Frequency of Lifts Cold Workplace Wrong Footwear Accidental Twists Total

1
53 24 5 24 8 21 22 1 158

2
43 29 28 20 31 9 4 12 176

3
42 27 13 2 15 7 10 26 142

4
61 27 30 29 11 16 6 3 183

Total
199 107 76 75 65 53 42 42 659

Total
199 306 382 457 522 575 617 659

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Technique 4 - PARETO ANALYSIS

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W h a t is it ? - A m e t h o d o f s h o w in g a t a b le o f d a t a in g r a p h ic a l f o r m a t t o a id u n d e r s t a n d in g . W h y d o it ? - T h e v is u a l im p a c t is g r e a t e r t h a n a t a b le o f n u m b e r s . C a n b e f ille d in r e a l t im e . W h e r e is it u s e d ? - O n n o t ic e b o a r d s , in d e p a r t m e n t s p la c e o f w o r k . at

W h e n is it u s e d ? - A f t e r y o u h a v e c o lle c t e d r e a l d a t a in checksheet f orm . W h o u s e s it ? A nyone.

H o w d o w e u s e it ? ( U s in g d a t a in t e c h n iq u e 3 . )
Week Week Week Week
Cumulative Cumulative

Reject
Weights too Heavy Reach Too far Incorrect Posture Previous Injuries Frequency of Lifts Cold Workplace Wrong Footwear Accidental Twists Total
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

1
53 24 5 24 8 21 22 1 158

2
43 29 28 20 31 9 4 12 176

3
42 27 13 2 15 7 10 26 142

4
61 27 30 29 11 16 6 3 183

Total
199 107 76 75 65 53 42 42 659

Total
199 306 382 457 522 575 617 659

%

%

30.19727 30.1972686 16.23672 46.4339909 11.53263 57.9666161 11.38088 69.3474962 9.863429 79.2109256 8.042489 87.2534143 6.373293 93.6267071 6.373293 100

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Technique 5 - CONCENTRATION DIAGRAMS

W h a t is it ? - a sim p le v isu a l a id t o co lle ct d a t a a b o u t a n a r e a o r id e a y o u a r e in v e st ig a t in g . W h y u se it ? - I t is e a sy t o u se a n d t r a in W h e r e is it u se d ? - a t t h e p la ce o f in v e st ig a t io n w h e n is it u se d ? - W h e n t h e t e a m w a n t s t o k n o w t h e w h a t t h e r e a l sit u a t io n is, o r t o co n f ir m a h u n ch a b o u t t h e in v e st ig a t io n . W h o u ses it ? - A n y o n e H o w d o w e u se it ? 1 ) M a k e a sk et ch o f t h e it em o r a r ea y o u a r e in v e st ig a t in g .

S im p ly m a k e a m a r k ev er y t im e t h er e is a n o ccu r e n ce o f a p r o b lem in t h a t lo ca t io n . T h e r esu lt in g v isu a l im p a ct is ea sy t o see

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Technique 6 - PROCESS FLOW CHARTS.

W h a t is it ? - I t is a v is u a l d ia g r a m o f h o w t h e p r o c e s s b e in g in v e s t ig a t e d o p e r a t e s . W h y d o it ? - T o c la r if y a n d u n d e r s t a n d h o w a p r o c e s s w o r k s a n d t o in v e s t ig a t e if t h e r e a r e a n y h o le s in it W h e r e is it u s e d ? - I t c a n b e u s e d a t a n y s t a g e b y t h e t e a m t o u n d e r s t a n d a s it u a t io n . W h e n is it u s e d ? - M o s t ly d u r in g t h e p la n n in g p h a s e a n d o c c a s io n a lly in t h e d o a c t p h a s e . W h o u s e s it ? T h e t e a m in v e s t ig a t in g t h e p r o b le m in a F lo w C h a r t f o r m .
A N A LY SE D A TA & B R A I N S T O R M p o ssib le SO LU TIO N S. U s in g T e c h n iq u e 1 B R A IN S T O R M IN G

H o w d o w e u s e it ? T h e e x a m p le b e lo w s h o w s P D C A

D E F IN E th e PRO BLEM W r ite a S M A R T d e f in itio n

B r a in s t o r m P o s s ib l e Causes.
U sin g T e c h n iq u e 2 C ause & E ffect

D E C ID E o n a Q U IC K F IX t o p ro te c t th e C u s to m e r.

P r io r it is e S o l u t io n s u s in g I m p a c t D ia g r a m s

P R IO R IT IS E P o s s ib le C a u s e s G iv e e a c h T e a m M e m b e r 5 v o te s e a c h

C o lle c t D a t a a t S ource U s e T e c h n iq u e 3 CH ECKSHEETS

V e r if y t h e E f f e c t o f I m p le m e n t in g e a c h S o l u t io n u s i n g S o lu tio n E f fe c t, F o r c e F i e ld A n a ly s i s a n d F a il u r e P r e v e n tio n .

M ake an I m p le m e n t a t io n S c h e d u le u s in g T e c h n i q u e 1 3 - P r o je c t P la n n i n g

S e t up M easures to M o n it o r t h e E f f e c t . U se C hecksheets, Paretos, C ontrol Charts.

IM P L E M E N T PR O JEC T PLAN

RE VIEW EFFECT on M EAS URES - M AKE C O U N T E R M E A S U R E S to E N SU RE O BJE CTIVE IS A CHIEVED .

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Technique 7 - Measuring Performance.

What is it? - It is a way of showing the Results and effects of changes made to a process. Why use it? - To understand the current performance and to chart improvements and progress towards a target. Where is it used? - Usually at the place of work or on the process being monitored. When is it used ? - From the start of a project right , through to the end. Data is usually added every day , week or month. Who uses it ? - The Team. How is it used ? Show the actual “output” achieved as a column.
Potential Causes Observed per Day
ACTUAL revised 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC TARGET PERCENTAGE BUDGET 120% 110% 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

Show “Targets” as lines

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Technique 8 - a) 5 WHY’s b) 5W1H.
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W h a t a r e t h ey ? - A v e r y sim p le w a y o f f in d in g if t h e t e a m h a s r e a c h e d t h e R O O T C A U S E o f a p r o b le m . W h e r e is it u se d ? - A s p a r t o f a t e a m p r o b le m so lv in g se ssio n s

out

W h y u se t h em ? - T o c o n f ir m t h e t e a m p e r c e p t io n

W h e n is it u se d ? - A f t e r in it ia l b r a in s t o r m in g a n d d e f in in g a p r o b lem . W h o u ses th em ? - T h e t ea m . H o w d o w e u se th em ? a ) 5 - W h y 's S im p ly a s k th e q u e s tio n " W H Y " 5 tim e s
1 ) W H Y w ill T V n o t c o m e o n ? B e ca u se t h er e is n o p o w e r . 2 ) W H Y is t h e r e n o p o w e r ? B e ca u se t h e fu se h a s b lo w n . 3 ) W H Y h a s t h e f u s e b l o w n .? B e c a u se t h e f u se a m p r a t in g is t o lo w . 4 ) W H Y w a s t h e f u se a m p r a t in g t o o lo w ? B e c a u se it w a s in c o r r e c t ly se le c t e d . 5 ) W H Y w a s it in c o r r e c t ly se le c t e d ? B e ca u se t h e h o u se h o ld e r w a s ig n o r a n t

b) 5W 1H S im p ly a s k W W W W W
hat ? hy ? h ere ? h en ? ho ?

H ow ? ( W h e n lo o k in g a t a p r o b le m t o c la r if y

u n d e r st a n d in g )
o f t h e n e ed fo r co r r e ct se le ct io n .

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Technique 9 - Paired Comparisons.
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W h a t a r e t h e y ? - T h e y a r e a m e t h o d o f H e lp in g t h e t e a m p r io r o t is e a n u m b e r o f p o t e n t ia l c a u s e s a n d s o lu t io n s . W h y use t h e m ? T o get a team concensus.

W h e r e is it u s e d ? - I n t e a m m e e t i n g s W h e n is it u s e d ? - W h e n t h e t e a m w i s h e s t o k n o w t h e p r i o r i t y o f a n u m b e r o f c a u s e s o r s o lu t io n s b e f o r e p r o c e e d in g t o t h e n e x t s t a g e . W h o u s e s it ? T he T eam .

H o w is it u s e d ? - T h e e x a m p l e b e l o w s h o w h o w t h e T e a m s d e c i d e d o n a p r e f e r e d a c t io n t o im p r o v e h e a t t r e a t m e n t r o u n d n e s s .

No 2 Item is more likely than No1 Item
No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

No 6 Item is more likely than No3 Item
Total 1 7 6 1 0 2 4 3 5 1 5 2 6 3 7 1 6 2 7

I tem
Reduced Lifting Weights Provision of Appropriate Footwear Frequent back Health Checks Reduced Lifting Reach Increased Room Temperature Propper Training More Breaks 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 7

Comparison
1 4 2 5 3 6 4 7

ADD up all the No 6’s that have been circled and put the number in this column. And so on...

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Technique 10 - IMPACT DIAGRAMS.
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What are they? - They are a method by which the Team can identify the priorities of a large list of Ideas/actions or Causes... Why use them? -To get a Team Consensus and get the greatest Impact with least effort. When is it used? - In cases where the is a long list of items. Where is it used? - Team Meetings How is it done? Step1 Each Team Member should Rank against 2 - Criteria
1 The EASE of achieving ( 1 = Very Difficult to 10 = Very Easy ), and 2 The IMPACT of the result ( 1 = Very Low to 10 = Very High ) on the problem.
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Idea , Action or Cause. Training New Gauge New Machine Change Coolant Supplier Change Coolant Mix In Process gauge Air Plug on Line SOP 100% checking by hand Communication EASE 9 5 2 4 8 5 8 9 8 9 IMPACT 6 9 9 4 4 7 9 9 8 6

HIGH

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 LO 0

3

2

10

8

IMPACT

9 6 10 & 1 4 5

These items should be done first as High Impact / Easy to do

W

0

2

4

VERY DIFFICULT

E A S E

6

8

10

VERY EASY

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Technique 11 - FORCE FIELD DIAGRAMS.

W h a t a r e t h e y ? - A m e t h o d o f c o n s id e r in g t h e p o s it iv e a n d n e g a t iv e e f f e c t s o f im p le m e n t in g s o lu t io n , W h y u s e t h e m ? - T o e v a lu a t e t h e p o s s ib ilit ie s o f a d d it io n a l o u t c o m e s t o t h e p r o p o s e d s o lu t io n . W h e r e is it u s e d ? - T e a m r o o m W h e n is it u s e d ? - W h e n t h e t e a m is d is c u s s in g p la n s t o im p le m e n t a s o lu t io n . W h o u s e s it ? - T h e t e a m H o w is it u s e d ? S t e p 1 W r it e a t t h e t o p o f a f lip c h a r t t h e s o lu t io n b e in g d is c u s s e d t h e n d r a w d ia g r a m b e lo w .
E x a m p le
Better T eam s

I m p le m e n t 3 - S h if t w o r k in g
M ore O ut put I m pr oved S c h e d u le s M ore C o m p a t ib ilit y P o s it iv e F orce

Step 2

R e lu c t a n c e o f P e o p le

S k ill S hortage

A d d it io n a l Costs

M ore staf f c over

N e g a t iv e F orce

KEY

T r a n sf e r o n t o a n a ly sis sh e e t
POSITIVE FORCES FORCE Better Teams More Output Improved Schedules More Capability Ability to Influence 5 8 6 7 Effect 5 7 6 7 Total 25 56 36 49 NEGATIVE FORCES FORCE Reluctance of People Skill Shortage Additional Costs More Staff Cover

1= LOW to 10 = HIGH

Ability to Influence 3 7 5 4

Effect 5 6 4 6

Total 15 42 20 24

This highest number in the column indicates the HIGHEST benefit

This highest number indicates the worst Negative aspect that needs a countermeasure.

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Technique 12 - SOLUTION EFFECT DIAGRAMS

What is it? - It is a way of Brainstorming the consequences of implementing a solution.. Why use it? -The Team should be aware of any side effects that implementing a solution may have. When is it used? - When a solution has been determined , but prior to implementation. Where is it used? - Team Meetings How is it done? - 1 Construct the Diagram Below
M O N EY
In cr ea sed W a ter u se.

M A T ER IA LS

N ig h t S h ift P a y

A d d it io n a l W a g e s A d m in C o st In cr ea sed P o w er u se

Im p ro v e d J IT s u p p ly to C u s to m e r

I m p le m e n t 3 - S h if t W o r k in g

Im p r o v e d M a n n in g

A d d itio n a l S k ills

I m p r o v e d S e tt in g

F le x ib ilit y

Im p ro v e d M o r a le

M ET HO D S

M AN PO W ER

From this diagram, the key actions to ensure success can be identified and any potential “downsides” to the solution can be highlighted.

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Technique 13 - SCHEDULE or PROJECT PLANNING.

What is it? - A Method of organising and communicating tasks and actions in a sequence that achieves the desired project result. Why use it? -To enable the planning of projects in the most economical way possible. When is it used? - When a solution has been determined , but prior to implementation. Where is it used? - Team Meetings How is it done? 1 Brainstorm all the actions required to implement the project. 2 Allocate responsibility for seeing a project through. 3 Decide the sequence that the actions must occur in. 4 Agree the Implementation dates.

The project can then be arranged in Gannt Chart form as shown below using Microsoft Project.
ID 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Task Nam e List all Improvement Teams List All Facilitatots active/want to be active List of Sponsors - Leaders / Facilitators Identify Gaps Devise Strategy to close gap Lisk Key Behaviours Make preparatory list for discussion September Duration 31/08 07/09 3 days 3 days 3 days 3 days 5 days 1 day 1 day pw sb aa sb aa 14/09 pw pw pw sb,pw,aa sb 21/09 October 28/09 05/10 12/10

Amm end PDCA Guide to include Policy on Im provementdays 5 Teams SOP for Continuous Improvement ( Natural Work Teams ) Establish Team Leaders - competancy to Lead Team 2 days 1 day 1 day

Agree with m anagem ent Team the Policy and project outcom es 1 day

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Technique 14 - FAILURE PREVENTION ANALYSIS.

What is it? - A technique that allows you to anticipate and counter problems before the implementation of a solution. Why use it? - To be proactive. Putting countermeasures in place to prevent a project going wrong. When is it used? - When a solution has been determined , but prior to implementation. Where is it used? - Team Meetings How is it done? 1 Brainstorm what could go wrong. 2 Rank the possible failure by designating potential and consequence of going wrong.
Potential Failure Potential Consequence Overall Rating Ranking

A. New Business will not fit the Line B. Late Delivery will mean loss of orders C. The quality Standard is not met. D. The Line is too slow. E. The project is over budget. F. It is too long for the building. G. The machine is not Safe. H. The machine is not CE marked.

4 5 6 3 7 1 4 9

5 5 6 3 3 8 8 8

20 25 36 9 21 8 32 72

6 4 2 7 5 8 3 1

Score Potential and Consequence on a scale of 1 to 10 and multiply together to give overall Rating

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