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PDCA

Problem Solving Guide

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CO RRECT &
ST A N D A R D ISE C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

 REV IEW FEED B A CK & ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES


M A K E CO RR ECT IO N S
B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E
 ST A N D A R D ISE D O ,
CH ECK , ACT ID EN T IFY T EA M RO LES

IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E EN LIG H T EN &


IM PLEM EN T
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N
T O V E R IF Y D A T A CA R R Y O U T T R IA LS T O
PR O VE C A U SE S
COUNTERM EASURE
A N A LY SE D A T A T O
U N D E R ST A N D H O W
T R A IN IN G
PR O BLEM O CCU R S
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C O M M U N IC A T IO N ID E N T IFY PO SSIB LE
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A Guide to a Team
Approach to Problem
Solving
S D BELLAMY - Group Total Quality Manager - 22 August
2000 ( 5TH Revision - Health Version )
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CO RRECT &
ST AN D AR D ISE C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

 REVIEW FEED BACK & ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES


M A K E CO RRECT IO N S
B EN C H M A R K B EST P R A C T IC E
 ST A N D A R D ISE D O ,
CH ECK , ACT ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES

IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E EN LIG H T EN &


IM PLEM EN T
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N
T O V E R IF Y D A T A CA R R Y O U T T R IA LS T O
PR O V E C A U SE S
COUNTERM EASURE
A N A LY SE D A T A T O
U N D E R ST A N D H O W
T R A IN IN G
PR O BLEM O CCU R S
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C O M M U N IC A T IO N ID E N T IFY PO SSIBLE

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1 Introduction to PDCA Problem Solving Cycle.


2 PDCA Cycle…….
3 Key Steps in PDCA…..
4 Defining the Problem
5 Selection of TQ Techniques used in PDCA.
6 Using the 14 Techniques.
7 PDCA Reviews - Racetrack.
8 Using PDCA Workbook.
9 Summary
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CO RRECT &
ST A N D A R D ISE C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

 REVIEW FEED BACK & ID EN T IFY P O SSIB L E C A U SES


M A K E C O R R EC T IO N S
B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E
 ST A N D A R D ISE D O ,
CH ECK , ACT ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES

IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EV ALU A T E & V ALID AT E EN LIG H T EN &


IM PLEM EN T
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N
T O V E R IF Y D A T A CAR RY O U T T RIALS T O
PR O V E C A U SE S
CO UN TERM EASURE
A N A LY SE D A T A T O
U N D E R ST A N D H O W
T R A IN IN G
PRO BLEM O CCURS
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C O M M U N IC A T IO N ID EN T IFY PO SSIB LE

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PDCA was created by W Edwards Deming


in the 1950’s as an easy to follow Problem
Solving Cycle.

Deming was tasked with helping Japan


rebuild its economy in the 1950’s.

His purpose was to use PDCA with a


Continuous Improvement process to
help rebuild Japanese industries so that
they could compete in the world market in
the future.
ACT PLAN

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n

CHECK DO

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CO RRECT &
ST A N D A R D ISE C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

 R EV IEW FEED B A CK & ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES


M A K E CO R R ECT IO N S
B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E
 ST A N D A R D ISE D O ,
CH ECK , ACT ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES

IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

EVALU AT E & VALID AT E EN LIG H T EN &


IM PLEM EN T
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N
T O V E R IF Y D A T A C A R R Y O U T T R IA LS T O
PR O V E C A U SE S
COUNTERM EASURE
A N A LY SE D A T A T O
U N D E R ST A N D H O W
T R A IN IN G
PRO BLEM O CCU RS
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Purpose:- To

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INVESTIGATE the
CT

A
I N VES T I GA T E
CO RRECT &
A
S T A N DA RDI S E DET ERM I N E N EEDS

N
 REVI EW F EED BA CK &  DI A GN O S T I C:

current situation &


M A KE CO RRECT I O N S  REVI EW CU RREN T
PR A C T I C E S .
 ST AN DARDI SE DO ,
CH ECK, A CT  BEN CH M A RKI N G:
 SUM M ARI SE AN D

understand fully the


C O M PA R E B E S T
PR A C T I C E S .

EV A LU A T E & V A LI D A T E EN LI GH T EN &
I M PL E M E N T

nature of the
 P IL O T T R A IN IN G
PRO G RAM  DEFI N E
R E S PO N S I B I L I T I E S :
 FEEDBACK W HY, W HAT & HO W

problem being
 RECO GN I T I O N .
RECO GN I S E T H E
CH

CO N T RI BU T I O N O F
O T H ERS .

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solved.
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Key Steps:-
Diagnostic - Review Current Practice.
Define the Problem - Who,What,Where and When .
Write Team Mission statement.
Brainstorm potential causes of problem using simple
Brainstorming or a Cause & Effect Diagram.
Identify & agree potential Root Causes prioritising using
Paired Comparisons or by Consensus Rankings and
asking the 5 WHY’s
Set up methods to capture ‘REAL’ data.
Implement ‘QUICK FIXES’ to protect the customer
Make Process Flow Diagram
Analyse ‘REAL DATA’ & show graphically.

Benchmarking - Compare Best Practices

Brainstorm where else may they have this problem, find out
what they do to resolve it.
Purpose:- To

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CT IN VEST IGAT E

A
CO RRECT &

N
Enlighten the
A
ST A N DA RDISE DET ERM I N E N EEDS

 REVI EW FEED BA CK &  DI A GN O ST I C:


M A KE CO RRECT I O N S  REVI EW CU RREN T
PR A C T I C E S .

Team as to the
 STAN DARDISE DO ,
CH ECK, A CT  BEN CH M A RKI N G:
 S U M M A RI S E A N D
C O M PA R E B E S T
PR A C T I C E S .

EVA LU A T E & VA LI DA T E
 P IL O T T R A IN IN G
PRO G RAM
EN LI GH T EN &
I M PL E M E N T

 DEFI N E
Real Problem by
analysing the
R E S PO N S I B I LI T I E S :
 FEEDBACK W H Y, W HAT & H O W

 RECO GN I T I O N .
RECO GN I S E T H E

Data and defining


CH

CO N T RI BU T I O N O F
O T HERS.

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D
and implementing
a solution plan.

Key Steps :-
Enlighten
Brainstorm solutions.
Rank solutions to identify best impact.
Carry out Failure Prevention Analysis.
Carry out Solution Effect Analysis.
Create Project Plan to implement solutions.
Put measures of performance in place using
Control Charts or Check Sheets.
Implement
Carry out Project Plan.
Educate, train & communicate
Purpose:- To

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monitor effect of I N VEST IGAT E

CT

A
CO RRECT &

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A
S T A N DA RDI S E DET ERM I N E N EEDS

implementation of  REVI EW FEED BA CK &


M A KE CO RRECT I O N S


DI A GN O S T I C:
REVI EW CU RREN T
PR A C T I C E S .
STAN DARDISE DO ,

project plan & find



CH ECK, A CT  BEN CH M A RKI N G:
 S U M M A RI SE A N D
C O M PA R E B E S T
PR A C T I C E S .

Countermeasures to EVA LU A T E &


VA LI DA T E
EN LI GH T EN &
I M PL E M E N T

further improve the


 P IL O T T R A IN IN G  DEFI N E
PRO G RAM R E S PO N S I B I L I T I E S :
W HY, W HAT & HO W

CH
 FEEDBACK

solution.
 RECO GN I T I O N .
RECO GN I SE T H E
CO N T RI BU T I O N O F

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O T H ERS .

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Key Steps :-

Evaluate

Collect data to monitor performance improvements.

Involve & train those affected by solution plan.

Communicate & feedback.

Validate

Resolve any issues by finding Countermeasures to


ensure solution plan continues.
Purpose:- To Review
Continuously the

CT

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IN VEST IGAT E

A
CO RRECT &

N
Performance Measure STA N DA RDI SE DET ERM I N E N EEDS

A
 REVI EW FEED BA CK &  DI A GN O S T I C:
M A KE CO RRECT I O N S  REVI EW CU RREN T

& make adjustments as  ST AN DARDI SE DO ,


CH ECK, A CT 

PR A C T I C E S .

BEN CH M A RKI N G:
S U M M A RI SE A N D

required. Integrate new EVA LU A T E & VA LI D A T E


C O M PA R E B E S T
PR A C T I C E S .

EN LI GH T EN &

situation into Normal  P IL O T T R A IN IN G


PRO G RAM
I M PL E M E N T

 DEFI N E
R E S PO N S I B I L I T I E S :

Working Practice. Start  FEEDBACK


W HY, W HAT & HO W

RECO GN I T I O N .
RECO GN I SE T H E

PDCA Cycle again.

CH
CO N T RI BU T I O N O F
O T H ERS .

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Key Actions :-
Correct & Standardise
Decide if solution is effective & either integrate into
normal working practice or abandon. If plan is
abandoned, ask what has been learned by the
process and, restart the project.

Determine new target & start PDCA cycle again.


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CO RRECT &
ST A N D A R D ISE C L A R I F Y O B JE C T I V E S

 R EV IEW FEED B AC K & ID EN T IFY PO SSIB L E C A U SES

ACT PLAN M A K E C O R R EC T IO N S
B EN C H M A R K B EST PR A C T IC E
 ST A N D A R D ISE D O ,
CH ECK , ACT ID EN T IFY T EA M R O LES

IM PLEM EN T Q U IC K FIX

Customer EVALU AT E & VALID AT E EN LIG H T EN &


Satisfaction IM PLEM EN T
P IL O T S T U D Y S O L U T IO N
T O V E R IF Y D A T A CAR R Y O U T T R IALS T O
PR O V E C A U SE S
COUNTERM EASURE
A N A L Y SE D A T A T O

CHECK DO T R A IN IN G
U N D E R ST A N D H O W
PRO BLEM O CCU RS

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C O M M U N IC A T IO N ID E N T IFY PO SSIB LE

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Checklist of PDCA Approach :
Have you got:
a Sponsor - ( Person who instigates the Problem Solving Session )
b Team Leader.
c Facilitator
d Team Members

Problem Solving Process:


P 1 Define Problem & Objective ( & Do Quick Fix )

P 2 Identify Likely Causes

P 3 Identify Major & Root Causes

P 4 Develop Solutions / Agree Action Plans

D 5 Implement action Plan

C 6 Determine Effectiveness of plan

A 7 Standardise Results / Implement in all relevant areas.


A CT PL A N

C u s to m e r
S a tis fa c tio n
Techniques to use with PDCA -
DO
Selection Chart
CH ECK

T e c h n iq u e P D C A

1 BR AIN ST O R M IN G    
2 CAUSE & EFFECT  
3 CHECK SHEETS   
4 PAR ETO AN ALYSIS   
5 CO N CEN T R AT IO N D IAG R AM S   
6 PR O CESS FLO W CH AR TS.  
7 PER FO R M AN CE M EASU R IN G    
8 5 W H Y 'S & 5W 1H 
9 PAIR ED CO M PAR ISO N S  
10 IM PACT D IAG R AM S  
11 FO R CE FIELD AN ALYSIS 
12 SO LU TIO N EFFECT D IAG R AM 
13 SCH ED U LE or PR O JECT PLAN 
14 F A IL U R E P R E V E N T IO N A N A L Y S IS

A CT
PL A N

C u s to m e r
Defining the Problem in
S a tis fa c tio n

CH ECK DO
SMART form.
What is this ? It is the first step in the PDCA
problem solving cycle.

Why do it ? To ensure that the whole Team is


clear about what their Goal is.

When do I use it ? At the first Team meeting.

Who does this ?.


? The Team.

How de we do it ?

By considering each of the following aspects of the issue


being addressed.

Who is the problem experienced by ( Stakeholder )?


What is the problem ?
Where is the problem ?
When is the problem experienced ?

Use these statements as a “Sanity Check” to refer back to at


later stages of the project to check if on track.
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A CT
Writing a Team
C u s to m e r
S a tis fa c tio n Mission Statement in
CH ECK DO SMART form.

Write a statement using the following SMART rules.


Specific
Measurable
Achievable
Realistic
Time based
Examples
To reduce “Annual Lost working Days due to Back
related Problems” in the “Stores Department” by 50%
in 6 months.

To reduce “Risk of causing Back Related Injuries” in


the Packing Department by 30% in 5 days.
A CT
PL A N

C u s to m e r
The Quick Fix
S a tis fa c tio n

CH ECK DO

What is this ? - This is a way of protecting the


Customer from the Effect of the Problem being investigated.

Why do it ? - Because the Cause of the problem may


take some time to resolve. ( It stops the patient bleeding to
death.)
When do I use it ? - Immediately the problem is identified.

Who does this ?.


? - The Team

How do we do this ?

Typical Quick Fixes may include for example:-

Several Lifts where one is the normal


Additional but time-consuming lifting gear
100 % Manual Inspection of product on line by operator
Audit Inspection after final Operation.
Multi Pass Operations.
Pre Process Manual Inspection.

They are usually, but not always, Time Consuming and Expensive.

If , for example, the problem was a “ leaking roof due to a cracked tile “
The quick fix could be
To put a bucket under the leak.
The final solution could be
Replace the Tile, Check condition of other tiles annually.
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 1 - BRAINSTORMING
CH ECK DO

W h a t is it ? - I t is a m e t h o d o f g e n e r a t in g I d e a s o r s u g g e s t io n s v e r y
q u ic k ly a n d c r e a t iv e ly .
W h y d o it ? - S o e v e r y m e m b e r o f t h e T e a m c o n t r ib u t e s .
W h e r e is it u s e d ? - M o s t o f t e n in t h e T e a m r o o m , a n d o t h e r w is e a n y w h e r e t h a t
t h e r e is a T e a m a n d a F lip c h a r t .
W h e n is it u s e d . ? - U s u a lly w h e n t h e p r o b le m b e in g s o lv e d is id e n t if ie d a n d
d e f in e d .
W h o u s e s it ? - C a n in v o lv e a n y o n e .
H o w is B r a in s t o r m in g D o n e ? -
S T EP 1
 F in d a q u ie t r o o m w it h a F lip C h a r t a n d h a v e P e n s , P o s t I t s , D r y w ip e M a r k e r s ,
B lu e T a c a v a ila b le .
 D e c id e w h o w ill a c t a s t h e T e a m S c r ib e .
 W r it e d o w n t h e P r o b le m o r S it u a t io n b e in g S t u d ie d o r I n v e s t ig a t e d a t t h e T O P
o f a F lip C h a r t .
S T EP 2
 G iv e a ll t h e T e a m M e m b e r s a f e w P o s t I t s .
 T h e n in d iv id u a lly f o r 5 m in u t e s w r it e d o w n o n t h e P o s t I t s ( 1 id e a p e r s h e e t )
a n y id e a s o r s u g g e s t io n s .
 W h e n id e a s h a v e d r ie d u p , S t ic k a ll t h e id e a s o n t o a F lip C h a r t a n d G r o u p a n y
s im ila r id e a s .
 T h e n f o r u p t o 10 m in u t e s , w o r k in g a r o u n d t h e r o o m , a d d a n y f u r t h e r id e a s
t h a t m a y h a v e b e e n m is s e d .

STEP 3

 A s a T e a m d i s c u s s e a c h i d e a a n d d e c i d e i f t h e y a r e T o t a lly , P a r t ia lly o r
N o t in t h e C o n t r o l o f t h e T e a m .
 S e p a r a t e o u t t h e " T o t a lly " i d e a s .
 P r i o r i t i s e t h e m u s i n g " I m p a c t D ia g r a m s " o r " P a ir e d C o m p a r is o n s " .

STEP 4

 T h e T e a m m u s t d e c id e if t h e r e is a n e e d t o in v o lv e s o m e o n e e ls e , in t h e
T e a m , t o r e s o l v e t h e P a r t ia lly o r N o t in C o n t r o l i t e m s .
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n Technique 2 - CAUSE & EFFECT
CH ECK DO

W h a t is it ? - I t i s a m e t h o d o f B r a in s t o r m in g C a u s e s o f a p r o b l e m o r s i t u a t i o n .
W h y d o it ? - T o h e l p t h e T e a m c a n f o c u s o n s p e c i f i c t h e m e s a n d g r o u p s o f c a u s e s .
W h e r e is it u s e d ? - I n t h e t e a m r o o m o r a t p l a c e o f w o r k
W h e n d o w e u s e it ? - W h e n a p r o b l e m o r e f f e c t i s d e f i n e d a n d p o s s i b l e c a u s e s a r e
needed.
W h o u s e s it ? - E v e r y o n e .
H ow d o w e use t h e m ? -
S t e p 1 - O n a la r g e b o a r d o r f lip c h a r t . C o n s t r u c t t h e d ia g r a m b e lo w .
M AN M A C H IN E

W rite th e E ffe c t in
h e re .

M A T E R IA L M ETH O D
S t e p 2 - A S c r ib e W ill t a k e PO S S I B L E C A U S E S f r o m r o u n d t h e t a b le in T u r n u n t il
D r ie d u p . A s p e r e x a m p le b e lo w .
M EN M a c h in e s
O p e ra to r n o t T ra in e d M a c h in e n o t C a p a b le
M a c h in e G a u g in g F a u lty

O v e r S iz e B o re

W ro n g G ra d e G rin d in g W h e e l W ro n g M a s te r Is s u e d .
C o o la n t M ix W ro n g
N o P o s t b o re G a u g e
M a te ria ls M e th o d s

S t e p 3 - P r io r it is e a n d S e le c t t h o s e t o b e i n v e s t i g a t e d , b y a l l o c a t i n g V O T E S t o e a c h
T e a m m e m b e r w h o a d d t h e ir c h o ic e s t o t h e D ia g r a m . A s p e r D ia g r a m B e lo w .

M EN M a c h in e s 3
O p e ra to r n o t T ra in e d M a c h in e n o t C a p a b le

M a c h in e G a u g in g F a u lty

5 1

O v e r S iz e B o re

W ro n g G ra d e G rin d in g W h e e l 2
W ro n g M a s te r Is s u e d .

C o o la n t M ix W ro n g
N o P o s t b o re G a u g e
M a te ria ls M e th o d s

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A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 3 - CHECKSHEETS
CH ECK DO

W h a t a r e t h e y ? - T h e y a r e a m e t h o d o f r e c o r d in g
f a c t u a l d a t a o v e r a p e r i o d o f t im e .
W h y d o it ? - S o y o u w i ll b e a b l e t o c o n f i r m t h e C a u s e s
o f t h e p r o b le m .
W h e r e is it u s e d ? - A t t h e p la c e w h e r e t h e in v e s t i g a t i o n
is t a k in g p la c e .
W h e n is it u s e d ? - A f t e r t h e i n i t i a l b r a i n s t o r m i n g ,
w h e n r e a l d a t a is r e q u ir e d t o c o n f ir m in it ia l id e a s .
W h o u s e s it ? - T h e t e a m s h o u l d n o m i n a t e a n d t r a i n
v o lu n t e e r s t o f ill t h e s h e e t in .
H o w is it u s e d ? -
D e s ig n a s h e e t s im ila r t o t h e o n e b e lo w , d e c id e o n d a t a t o
b e c o lle c t e d a n d w h e n . T r a in t h e p e r s o n w h o w ill c o lle c t
the d at a.

Week Week Week Week Cumulative

Cause 1 2 3 4 Total Total


Weights too Heavy 53 43 42 61 199 199
Reach too far 24 29 27 27 107 306
Incorrect Posture 5 28 13 30 76 382
Previous Injury 24 20 2 29 75 457
Frequency of Lifts 8 31 15 11 65 522
Cold Workplace 21 9 7 16 53 575
Wrong Footwear 22 4 10 6 42 617
Accidental Twists 1 12 26 3 42 659
Total 158 176 142 183 659
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 4 - PARETO ANALYSIS
CH ECK DO

W h a t is it ? - A m e t h o d o f s h o w in g a t a b le o f d a t a in
g r a p h ic a l f o r m a t t o a id u n d e r s t a n d in g .
W h y d o it ? - T h e v is u a l im p a c t is g r e a t e r t h a n a t a b le o f
n u m b e r s . C a n b e f ille d in r e a l t im e .
W h e r e is it u s e d ? - O n n o t ic e b o a r d s , in d e p a r t m e n t s at
p la c e o f w o r k .
W h e n is it u s e d ? - A f t e r y o u h a v e c o lle c t e d r e a l d a t a in
checksheet f orm .
W h o u s e s it ? - A nyone.
H o w d o w e u s e it ? -
( U s in g d a t a in t e c h n iq u e 3 . )
Week Week Week Week Cumulative Cumulative

Reject 1 2 3 4 Total Total % %


Weights too Heavy 53 43 42 61 199 199 30.19727 30.1972686

Reach Too far 24 29 27 27 107 306 16.23672 46.4339909

Incorrect Posture 5 28 13 30 76 382 11.53263 57.9666161

Previous Injuries 24 20 2 29 75 457 11.38088 69.3474962

Frequency of Lifts 8 31 15 11 65 522 9.863429 79.2109256

Cold Workplace 21 9 7 16 53 575 8.042489 87.2534143

Wrong Footwear 22 4 10 6 42 617 6.373293 93.6267071

Accidental Twists 1 12 26 3 42 659 6.373293 100

Total 158 176 142 183 659

100
90
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50
40
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A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 5 - CONCENTRATION
CH ECK DO
DIAGRAMS

W h a t is it ? - a sim p le v isu a l a id t o co lle ct d a t a a b o u t a n


a r e a o r id e a y o u a r e in v e st ig a t in g .

W h y u se it ? - I t is e a sy t o u se a n d t r a in

W h e r e is it u se d ? - a t t h e p la ce o f in v e st ig a t io n

w h e n is it u se d ? - W h e n t h e t e a m w a n t s t o k n o w t h e w h a t
t h e r e a l sit u a t io n is, o r t o co n f ir m a h u n ch a b o u t t h e
in v e st ig a t io n .

W h o u ses it ? - A n y o n e

H o w d o w e u se it ? -

1 ) M a k e a sk et ch o f t h e it em o r a r ea y o u a r e
in v e st ig a t in g .

S im p ly m a k e a m a r k ev er y t im e t h er e is a n o ccu r e n ce o f a
p r o b lem in t h a t lo ca t io n .
T h e r esu lt in g v isu a l im p a ct is ea sy t o see
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 6 - PROCESS FLOW
CH ECK DO
CHARTS.

W h a t is it ? - I t is a v is u a l d ia g r a m o f h o w t h e p r o c e s s
b e in g in v e s t ig a t e d o p e r a t e s .

W h y d o it ? - T o c la r if y a n d u n d e r s t a n d h o w a p r o c e s s
w o r k s a n d t o in v e s t ig a t e if t h e r e a r e a n y h o le s in it

W h e r e is it u s e d ? - I t c a n b e u s e d a t a n y s t a g e b y t h e
t e a m t o u n d e r s t a n d a s it u a t io n .

W h e n is it u s e d ? - M o s t ly d u r in g t h e p la n n in g p h a s e a n d
o c c a s io n a lly in t h e d o a c t p h a s e .

W h o u s e s it ? - T h e t e a m in v e s t ig a t in g t h e p r o b le m

H o w d o w e u s e it ? -
T h e e x a m p le b e lo w s h o w s P D C A in a F lo w C h a r t f o r m .

D E F IN E th e A N A LY SE D A TA &
B R A I N S T O R M p o ssib le
PRO BLEM SO LU TIO N S.
W r ite a S M A R T U s in g T e c h n iq u e 1 -
d e f in itio n B R A IN S T O R M IN G

B r a in s t o r m P o s s ib l e D E C ID E o n a
Causes.
P r io r it is e
Q U IC K F IX t o
S o l u t io n s u s in g
U sin g T e c h n iq u e 2 p ro te c t th e
I m p a c t D ia g r a m s
C ause & E ffect C u s to m e r.

P R IO R IT IS E C o lle c t D a t a a t V e r if y t h e E f f e c t o f
P o s s ib le C a u s e s S ource I m p le m e n t in g e a c h
S o l u t io n u s i n g
S o lu tio n E f fe c t, F o r c e
G iv e e a c h T e a m U s e T e c h n iq u e 3 F i e ld A n a ly s i s a n d F a il u r e
M e m b e r 5 v o te s e a c h CH ECKSHEETS P r e v e n tio n .

M ake an
I m p le m e n t a t io n S e t up M easures to RE VIEW EFFECT on
M o n it o r t h e E f f e c t . IM P L E M E N T M EAS URES - M AKE
S c h e d u le u s in g U se C hecksheets,
C O U N T E R M E A S U R E S to
PR O JEC T PLAN E N SU RE O BJE CTIVE
T e c h n i q u e 1 3 - P r o je c t Paretos, C ontrol Charts. IS A CHIEVED .
P la n n i n g
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 7 - Measuring
CH ECK DO
Performance.

What is it? - It is a way of showing the Results and effects


of changes made to a process.
Why use it? - To understand the current performance and
to chart improvements and progress towards a target.
Where is it used? - Usually at the place of work or on the
process being monitored.
When is it used ? - From the start of a project right ,
through to the end. Data is usually added every day ,
week or month.
Who uses it ? - The Team.
How is it used ? -
Show “Targets” as
Show the actual lines
“output” achieved
as a column.

Potential Causes Observed per Day


ACTUAL TARGET BUDGET
revised PERCENTAGE
35000 120%

30000 110%

25000 100%

20000 90%

15000 80%

10000 70%

5000 60%

0 50%
1994 1995 1996 1997 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 8 - a) 5 WHY’s b) 5W1H.
CH ECK DO

W h a t a r e t h ey ? - A v e r y sim p le w a y o f f in d in g out
if t h e t e a m h a s r e a c h e d t h e R O O T C A U S E o f a
p r o b le m .
W h y u se t h em ? - T o c o n f ir m t h e t e a m p e r c e p t io n
W h e r e is it u se d ? - A s p a r t o f a t e a m p r o b le m
so lv in g se ssio n s
W h e n is it u se d ? - A f t e r in it ia l b r a in s t o r m in g a n d
d e f in in g a p r o b lem .
W h o u ses th em ? - T h e t ea m .
H o w d o w e u se th em ? -
a ) 5 - W h y 's b) 5W 1H
S im p ly a s k th e q u e s tio n " W H Y " S im p ly a s k
5 tim e s

1 ) W H Y w ill T V n o t c o m e o n ? W hat ?
B e ca u se t h er e is n o p o w e r . W hy ?
2 ) W H Y is t h e r e n o p o w e r ? W h ere ?
B e ca u se t h e fu se h a s b lo w n . W h en ?
3 ) W H Y h a s t h e f u s e b l o w n .? W ho ?
B e c a u se t h e f u se a m p r a t in g is t o lo w . H ow ?
4 ) W H Y w a s t h e f u se a m p r a t in g t o o lo w ? ( W h e n lo o k in g
B e c a u se it w a s in c o r r e c t ly se le c t e d . a t a p r o b le m t o
5 ) W H Y w a s it in c o r r e c t ly se le c t e d ? c la r if y
B e ca u se t h e h o u se h o ld e r w a s ig n o r a n t
u n d e r st a n d in g )
o f t h e n e ed fo r co r r e ct se le ct io n .
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 9 - Paired Comparisons.
CH ECK DO

W h a t a r e t h e y ? - T h e y a r e a m e t h o d o f H e lp in g t h e t e a m p r io r o t is e a
n u m b e r o f p o t e n t ia l c a u s e s a n d s o lu t io n s .

W h y use t h e m ? - T o get a team concensus.

W h e r e is it u s e d ? - I n t e a m m e e t i n g s

W h e n is it u s e d ? - W h e n t h e t e a m w i s h e s t o k n o w t h e p r i o r i t y o f a
n u m b e r o f c a u s e s o r s o lu t io n s b e f o r e p r o c e e d in g t o t h e n e x t s t a g e .

W h o u s e s it ? - T he T eam .

H o w is it u s e d ? - T h e e x a m p l e b e l o w s h o w h o w t h e T e a m s d e c i d e d o n a
p r e f e r e d a c t io n t o im p r o v e h e a t t r e a t m e n t r o u n d n e s s .
No 6 Item is
more likely
No 2 Item is more
than No3
likely than No1 Item
Item
No I tem Comparison Total
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5
Reduced Lifting Weights
2 3 4 5 6 7
2 Provision of Appropriate 2 2 2 2 2 6
Footwear 3 4 5 6 7
3 3 3 3 3 1
Frequent back Health Checks
4 5 6 7
4 4 4 4 0
Reduced Lifting Reach
5 6 7
5 5 5 2
Increased Room Temperature
6 7
6 6 4
Propper Training
7
7 3
More Breaks

ADD up all the No 6’s


that have been circled
and put the number in
this column. And so on...
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 10 - IMPACT DIAGRAMS.
CH ECK DO

What are they? - They are a method by which the Team


can identify the priorities of a large list of Ideas/actions or
Causes...
Why use them? -To get a Team Consensus and get the
greatest Impact with least effort.
When is it used? - In cases where the is a long list of items.
Where is it used? - Team Meetings
How is it done? -
Step1 Each Team Member should Rank against 2 - Criteria
1 The EASE of achieving ( 1 = Very Difficult to 10 = Very Easy ),
and
2 The IMPACT of the result ( 1 = Very Low to 10 = Very High ) on
the problem.

No. Idea , Action or Cause. EASE IMPACT

1 Training 9 6
2 New Gauge 5 9
3 New Machine 2 9
4 Change Coolant Supplier 4 4
5 Change Coolant Mix 8 4
6 In Process gauge 5 7
7 Air Plug on Line 8 9
8 SOP 9 9
These
9 100% checking by hand 8 8 items
10 Communication 9 6
should be
done first
HIGH
10 as High
Impact /
10 8
9 3 2
IMPACT

8
7
9 Easy to
6
6 10
& 1
do
5
4 4 5

3
2
1
LO 0
W 0 2 4 6 8 10
VERY
VERY E A S E EASY
DIFFICULT
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 11 - FORCE FIELD
CH ECK DO DIAGRAMS.
W h a t a r e t h e y ? - A m e t h o d o f c o n s id e r in g t h e p o s it iv e a n d n e g a t iv e e f f e c t s o f im p le m e n t in g
s o lu t io n ,

W h y u s e t h e m ? - T o e v a lu a t e t h e p o s s ib ilit ie s o f a d d it io n a l o u t c o m e s t o t h e p r o p o s e d
s o lu t io n .

W h e r e is it u s e d ? - T e a m r o o m

W h e n is it u s e d ? - W h e n t h e t e a m is d is c u s s in g p la n s t o im p le m e n t a s o lu t io n .

W h o u s e s it ? - T h e t e a m

H o w is it u s e d ? -

S t e p 1 W r it e a t t h e t o p o f a f lip c h a r t t h e s o lu t io n b e in g d is c u s s e d t h e n d r a w d ia g r a m b e lo w .

E x a m p le I m p le m e n t 3 - S h if t w o r k in g
M ore
Better O ut put I m pr oved M ore P o s it iv e
T eam s S c h e d u le s C o m p a t ib ilit y F orce

R e lu c t a n c e o f A d d it io n a l
N e g a t iv e
P e o p le Costs
F orce
Step 2 S k ill M ore staf f
S hortage c over
KEY
T r a n sf e r o n t o a n a ly sis sh e e t 1= LOW to 10 = HIGH

POSITIVE FORCES NEGATIVE FORCES


Ability to Ability to
FORCE Effect Total FORCE Effect Total
Influence Influence
Better Teams 5 5 25 Reluctance of People 3 5 15
More Output 8 7 56 Skill Shortage 7 6 42
Improved Schedules 6 6 36 Additional Costs 5 4 20
More Capability 7 7 49 More Staff Cover 4 6 24

This highest number


This highest number in indicates the worst
the column indicates Negative aspect that
the HIGHEST benefit needs a countermeasure.
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 12 - SOLUTION EFFECT
CH ECK DO DIAGRAMS
What is it? - It is a way of Brainstorming the
consequences of implementing a solution..
Why use it? -The Team should be aware of any side
effects that implementing a solution may have.
When is it used? - When a solution has been
determined , but prior to implementation.
Where is it used? - Team Meetings
How is it done? -
- 1 Construct the Diagram Below

M O N EY M A T ER IA LS

In cr ea sed W a ter
u se. N ig h t S h ift P a y

A d d it io n a l
W a g e s A d m in Im p ro v e d J IT
C o st s u p p ly to C u s to m e r
In cr ea sed
P o w er u se
I m p le m e n t 3 - S h if t
W o r k in g Im p r o v e d M a n n in g A d d itio n a l S k ills

F le x ib ilit y
I m p r o v e d S e tt in g

Im p ro v e d
M o r a le

M ET HO D S M AN PO W ER

From this diagram, the key actions to ensure success


can be identified and any potential “downsides” to
the solution can be highlighted.
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 13 - SCHEDULE or
CH ECK DO PROJECT PLANNING.

What is it? - A Method of organising and communicating


tasks and actions in a sequence that achieves the desired
project result.
Why use it? -To enable the planning of projects in the
most economical way possible.
When is it used? - When a solution has been determined
, but prior to implementation.
Where is it used? - Team Meetings
How is it done? -
1 Brainstorm all the actions required to implement the
project.
2 Allocate responsibility for seeing a project through.
3 Decide the sequence that the actions must occur in.
4 Agree the Implementation dates.

The project can then be arranged in Gannt


Chart form as shown below using Microsoft
Project.
September October
ID Task Nam e Duration 31/08 07/09 14/09 21/09 28/09 05/10 12/10
1 List all Improvement Teams 3 days pw
2 List All Facilitatots active/want to be active 3 days pw
3 List of Sponsors - Leaders / Facilitators 3 days pw
4 Identify Gaps 3 days sb,pw,aa
5 Devise Strategy to close gap 5 days sb
6 Lisk Key Behaviours 1 day

7 Make preparatory list for discussion 1 day pw


8 Amm end PDCA Guide to include Policy on Im provement
5 days
Teams sb
9 SOP for Continuous Improvement 2 days aa
10 ( Natural Work Teams ) 1 day sb
11 Establish Team Leaders - competancy to Lead Team 1 day aa
12 Agree with m anagem ent Team the Policy and project outcom
1 dayes
A CT PLA N

C u s to m e r
S a tis f a c tio n
Technique 14 - FAILURE
CH ECK DO PREVENTION ANALYSIS.

What is it? - A technique that allows you to anticipate


and counter problems before the implementation of a
solution.
Why use it? - To be proactive. Putting countermeasures
in place to prevent a project going wrong.
When is it used? - When a solution has been determined
, but prior to implementation.
Where is it used? - Team Meetings
How is it done? -
1 Brainstorm what could go wrong.
2 Rank the possible failure by designating potential
and consequence of going wrong.
Overall
Potential Failure Potential Consequence Ranking
Rating

A. New Business will not fit the Line 4 5 20 6


B. Late Delivery will mean loss of orders 5 5 25 4
C. The quality Standard is not met. 6 6 36 2
D. The Line is too slow. 3 3 9 7
E. The project is over budget. 7 3 21 5
F. It is too long for the building. 1 8 8 8
G. The machine is not Safe. 4 8 32 3
H. The machine is not CE marked. 9 8 72 1

Score Potential and Consequence on a scale of 1 to 10 and multiply together


to give overall Rating