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1. Neurons 2. Glial cells Neuron is the functional unit of the nervous system.

Dendrites Cell Body Axon

Sensory neurons Motor neurons Interneurons

The plasma membrane of neurons has an unequal distribution of ions and electrical charges between the two sides of the membrane. The outside of the membrane has a positive charge, inside has a negative charge. Passage of ions across the cell membrane passes the electrical charge along the cell.

The voltage potential is -65mV (millivolts) of a cell at rest (resting potential). Resting potential results from differences between sodium and potassium positively charged ions and negatively charged ions in the cytoplasm.
Sodium ions are more concentrated outside the membrane, while potassium ions are more concentrated inside the membrane. This imbalance is maintained by the active transport of ions to reset the membrane known as the sodium potassium pump.

The sodium-potassium pump maintains this unequal concentration by actively transporting ions against their concentration gradients.
The action potential results in propagation of the nerve impulse along the membrane. It begins at one spot on the membrane, but spreads to adjacent areas of the membrane, propagating the message along the length of the cell membrane.

At rest the outside of the membrane is more positive than the inside. Sodium moves inside the cell causing an action potential, the influx of positive sodium ions makes the inside of the membrane more positive than the outside.

Potassium ions flow out of the cell, restoring the resting potential net charges.

Sodium ions are pumped out of the cell and potassium ions are pumped into the cell, restoring the original distribution of ions.

Is the junction between a nerve cell and another cell. Messages travel within the neuron as an electrical action potential. The space between two cells is known as the synaptic cleft. To cross the synaptic cleft requires the actions of neurotransmitters. Neurotransmitters are stored in small synaptic vesicles clustered at the tip of the axon.

Receive sensory input from internal and external environments Integrate the input Respond to stimuli

Central Nervous System (CNS) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

Somatic Autonomic

Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Autonomic Nervous System

The Sympathetic Nervous System is involved in the fight or flight response. The Parasympathetic Nervous System is involved in relaxation (rest and digest)

The Brain
Brain Stem and Midbrain

Cerebellum Forebrain Cerebrum

The Spinal Cord

The cardiovascular/circulatory system transports food, hormones, metabolic wastes, and gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide) to and from cells.

Blood: consisting of liquid plasma and cell. Blood vessels (vascular system): the "channels"
(arteries, veins, capillaries) which carry blood to/from all tissues. Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Veins return blood to the heart. Capillaries are thin-walled blood vessels in which gas/ nutrient/ waste exchange occurs.)

Heart: a muscular pump to move the blood

Pulmonary circulation, involving the

"right heart," delivers blood to and from the lungs. The pulmonary artery carries oxygen-poor blood from the "right heart" to the lungs, where oxygenation and carbondioxide removal occur. Pulmonary veins carry oxygen-rich blood from the lungs back to the "left heart."

Systemic circulation, driven by the "left

heart," carries blood to the rest of the body. Food products enter the sytem from the digestive organs into the portal vein. Waste products are removed by the liver and kidneys. All systems ultimately return to the "right heart" via the inferior and superior vena cava.

Major Blood Components Component Type Platelets, cell fragments Source Bone marrow life-span: 10 days Bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes Blood clotting Function

Lymphocytes (leukocytes)

Immunity T-cells attack cells containing viruses. B-cells produce antibodies. Oxygen transport

Red blood cells (erythrocytes), Filled with hemoglobin, a compound of iron and protein Neutrophil (leukocyte) Plasma, consisting of 90% water and 10% dissolved materials -nutrients (proteins, salts, glucose), wastes (urea, creatinine), hormones, enzymes

Bone marrow life-span: 120 days

Bone marrow

Phagocytosis Maintenance of pH level near 7.4 Transport of large molecules

(e.g. cholesterol) Immunity (globulin) Blood clotting (fibrinogen)

Major Branches of Systemic Circulation




Mesenteric Celiac (Abdominal) Renal Iliac Brachial (axillary) Radial & Ulnar Dorsal Carpal Femoral Popliteal Dorsal pedis Posterior tibial

Brain & skull

Intestines Stomach, liver, spleen Kidney Pelvis Upper arm Forearm & hand Fingers Thigh Leg Foot Foot

Upper Extremity

Lower Extremity