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Equilibrium Phase Diagrams

What is a Phase?

Phase is a form of material having characteristic structure and properties. Phase can be continuous (air in the room) or discontinuous (salt grains in the shaker). Gas, liquid or solid. Pure substance or solution (uniform structure throughout).

What is a Phase?

More precisely: Phase is a form of material with


identifiable composition (chemistry), definable structure, and distinctive boundaries (interfaces) which separate it from other phases.

Equilibrium Phase Diagrams

Graphic mapping of the natural tendencies of a material or a material system. Primary variables:

temperature, pressure and composition.

P-T diagram (the simplest).

Temperature-Composition Diagrams

Engineering processes conducted at atmospheric pressure (P/T variations). The most common: temperaturecomposition phase diagrams.

Cooling Curves

Cooling Curves
Pure Metals

Alloys

Solidification or Freezing range Freezing or Melting point

Metal A and Metal B

Alloys A + B

Cooling Curves and Phase Diagram

100%

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Phase Diagrams
ISSUES...
When we combine two elements...
what equilibrium state do we get?

In particular, if we specify...
--a composition (e.g., wt%Cu - wt%Ni), and --a temperature (T)

then...
How many phases do we get? What is the composition of each phase? How much of each phase do we get?

The Solubility Limit


Solubility Limit:
Max concentration for which only a solution occurs.

Ex: Phase Diagram: Water-Sugar System


Question: What is the
solubility limit at 20C?

Answer: 65wt% sugar.

Solubility limit increases with T:


e.g., if T = 100C, solubility limit = 80wt% sugar.

Effect of Temperature (T) & Composition Co)


Changing T can change # of phases: path A to B. Changing Co can change # of phases: path B to D.

watersugar system

Solubility studies & Types of Metals


Solubility limits. Degree of solubility determines properties. Types of Metals I-Two metals completely soluble in each other. II- Two metals soluble in liquid state and insoluble in solid state. III-Two metals soluble in liquid state and partially soluble in solid state.

Complete Solubility

Copper-Nickel equilibrium diagram

Partial Solid Solubility

Degree of solubility depends on temperature At max. solubility, 183 C: lead holds up to 19.2 wt% tin in a single phase solution, and tin holds up to 2.5wt% lead and still be a single phase.

Partial solid solubility -When temperature is decreased, the amount of solute that can be held in solution decreases in a continuous manner. -If a saturated solution of tin in lead is cooled from 183C, the material will go from a single-phase solution to a two-phase mixture as a tin-rich second phase precipitates from solution. -This change in structure can be used to alter and control the properties in a number of engineering alloys.
Contd

Utilization of Diagrams
These can be used to determine

The # of phases present.


Composition of each phase ( single phase region or two phase region).

In two phase region a tie-line should be constructed.

The amount of each phase present:

lever-law calculation using a tie-line.

Phase diagrams
Let us discuss the phases as function of T, Co, P. For
--binary systems: just 2 components. --independent variables: T and Co (P = 1atm is always used).
Phase Diagram for Cu-Ni system

Phase diagrams : # and types of phases


Rule 1: If we know T and Co, then we know:
--the # and types of phases present.

Examples:
Cu-Ni phase diagram

Phase diagrams :
Examples:

composition of phases
Cu-Ni system

Rule 2: If we know T and Co, then we know:


--the composition of each phase.

Utilization of Diagrams- Tie line in two


phase region
Liquid phase amount
Solid phase amount

a S2 100 % % by mas L2 S 2
L2 a L2 S 2 100% % by mass

Phase diagrams : weight fractions of phases


Rule 3: If we know T and Co, then we know:
--the amount of each phase (given in wt%).

Examples:

Cu-Ni system

S 43 35 73wt % WL R S 43 32 W R R S
= 27wt%

Example problem
Givendata : X 36% of B a 36% of B L2 72% of B S 2 18% of B Compute liquid phase and solid phase % amounts by mass.

36 18 Liquid phase amount ? 100% 33.33 % by mass 72 18


Solid phase amount 72 36 ? 100% 66.67 % by mass 72 18

Tie lines for calculating the %ages of phases present at a particular temperature

% a phase at 750 C =? % b phase (primary) at 420 C = ? ?

% Liquid = ? % eutectic =

Alloying Steel with more Elements


Teutectoid changes: Ceutectoid changes:

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Cast Irons
-Iron-Carbon alloys of 2.11%C or more are cast irons. -Typical composition: 2.04.0%C,0.5-3.0% Si, less than 1.0% Mn and less than 0.2% S. -Si-substitutes partially for C and promotes formation of graphite as the carbon rich component instead Fe3C.

Summary
Phase diagrams are useful tools to determine:
--the number and types of phases, --the wt% of each phase, --and the composition of each phase

for a given T and composition of the system.

Alloying to produce a solid solution usually


--increases the tensile strength (TS) --decreases the ductility.

Binary eutectics and binary eutectoids allow for a range of microstructures.

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Example problem
Givendata : X 36% of B a 36% of B L2 72% of B S 2 18% of B Compute liquid phase and solid phase % amounts by mass.

36 18 Liquid phase amount 100% 33.33 % by mass 72 18


Solid phase amount 72 36 100% 66.67 % by mass 72 18

Tie lines for calculating the %ages of phases present at a particular temperature

Thanks

Eutectic Point & alloy


Eutectic alloy A mixture of metals having a melting point lower than that of any of its components Eutectic Point The point in a phase diagram indicating the lowest melting point of a eutectic

Solid Solution
A homogeneous crystalline structure in which one or more types of atoms or molecules may be partly substituted for the original atoms and molecules without changing the structure