# Mechanism of Momentum Transport

By Amol Deshpande

04/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Outline • • • • Viscosity and Newton’s Law of Viscosity Generalization of Newton’s Law of viscosity Pressure and Temp dependence of viscosity Determination of viscosity – Gases – Liquids • Convective momentum transport 04/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

direction • • • • Momentum flux / Momentum transport Newtonian/Non-newtonian fluids Kinematic viscosity P & T effects on viscosity Transport Phenomena 04/08/2011 .Flow between two large parallel plates • Expression – Flux of x – momentum in y .Newton’s Law of Viscosity • Example .

Molecular Stress Tensor • Molecular Stress – Pressure – Normal stresses – Viscous (Shear) stresses • Representations 04/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Generalization of Newton’s Law • Viscous stress (generalized) • Time derivatives / Time integrals should not appear in the expression • No viscous forces are present. if fluid is in a state of pure rotation • Fluid is isotropic • Generalized form 04/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Dilatational Viscosity (k) • Fluid dynamics problem – it is discarded – Ideal mono-atomic gas : – Incompressible liquid : k =0 Divergence is zero • Important in describing sound absorption in polyatomic gases and fluid dynamics of liquids containing gas bubbles 04/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Viscosity – T and P Dependence 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Viscosity • Critical viscosity 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Determination of Viscosity .Gases • Maxwell’s expression of viscosity – Rigid sphere model – Viscosity is independent of P and proportional to sqrt(T) – Gives good results for pressures upto 10 atms (T > Tc) 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

1.13) • Collision integral for viscosity (Accounts for the details of the paths that the molecules take during binary collision) – Valid for Monatomic /Polyatomic gases – Viscosity of gas mixtures 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena . Characteristic energy (Eqs. 12.4-11.Gases • Chapman – Enskog Equation – Intermolecular potential energy – Empirical expression is Lennard-Jones potential (for non-polar gases) – Lennard-Jones Parameters (σ and ε) • Collision diameter.Determination of Viscosity .

Liquids • Based on kinetic theory of transport properties of monatomic liquids developed by Kirkwood and co-workers – – – – h : Planck’s constant N : Avogadro’s No V : Volume of a mole of a liquid Tb: Normal boiling point 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .Determination of Viscosity .

Convective Momentum Transport • Momentum transport by bulk flow of the fluid • Convective momentum flux vectors 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Convective Momentum Transport • Convective momentum flux tensor – ρvv 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Combined Momentum Flux • Used for setting up general momentum balances • Interpretation – Φxy = combined flux of y-momentum across a surface perpendicular to x direction by molecular and convective mechanisms 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

– Using Chapman-Enskog equation 06/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .Examples • Determination of viscosity of gases at low density • CO2 at 200C. 800C and at 1 atm. 300C.

Problems 09/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .