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# Velocity Distributions More Than One Independent Variable

By Amol Deshpande

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Introduction
Study of problems involving more than one independent variable
Unsteady State Flow Viscous Flow More Than One Direction (Stream Function) Flow of Inviscid fluids (Velocity Potential) Viscous Flow in Boundary Layers

Methods of solving
Analytical solutions CFD
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Velocity function of position and time Solution techniques (Converting PDEs into one or more ODEs)
Method of combination of variables
Useful for only semi-infinite regions Initial and boundary condition at infinity combined into one

## Method of separation of variables

Splitting PDEs into two or more ODEs Final solution infinite sum of products of solutions of ODEs

## Method of sinusoidal response

Useful in case of external periodic disturbances
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## Example Flow near a wall (Semi-infinite)

A semi-infinite body of liquid with constant density and viscosity is bounded below by horizontal surface. At t=0, solid surface is set in motion in positive x-direction. Find velocity distribution. No pressure gradient and gravitational force in x-direction. Presume the flow to be laminar. Solution
Setup problem using equations of change Governing equation for velocity

Initial/Boundary conditions

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Transport Phenomena

## Example Flow near a wall (Semi-infinite)

Governing equation in terms of ODE where Boundary Conditions Solution

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Transport Phenomena

Velocity Profile

## Boundary layer thickness

Distance y for which velocity vx has dropped to a value of 0.01v0 Measure of the extent to which momentum has penetrated into the body of the fluid
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## Example Flow Between Two Parallel Plates

Unsteady state flow between two parallel plates (fixed plate at a distance b from the moving plate). Steady state reaches at time t Infinity Governing Equations Initial/Boundary Conditions

Dimensionless Variables
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## Example Flow Between Two Parallel Plates

Governing Equation in terms of dimensionless variables Solution Steady state (at time t Infinity) Transient
Method of separation of (dependent) variables

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## Equation of Change for Vorticity

Multidimensional flow problems involving velocity and pressure as dependent variables
Difficult to solve analytically Need to eliminate one of the dependent variables

## Modifications in the equation of motion

Take curl of equation of motion Need to use vector identity Equation of change for vorticity (constant density and viscosity)
Prob 3D.2

## Solving Procedure (viscous flow problems)

Continuity equation & Vorticity equation along with initial and boundary conditions Velocity distribution Use N-S equation to get pressure distribution
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## Solving Problems using Stream Function

Stream Function
Allows to represent two entities (velocity components of two-dimensional flows) with a single function that satisfies continuity equaiton. In rectangular coordinates (for 2-D incompressible flow) Surfaces of constant Streamlines Volumetric flow between two surfaces (1 and 2) is proportional to 2 - 1

## Equation of motion in terms of stream function

Table 4.2-1 (For planar and axisymmetric flows)
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