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By Amol Deshpande

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Introduction • Study of problems involving more than one independent variable – Unsteady State Flow – Viscous Flow – More Than One Direction (Stream Function) – Flow of Inviscid fluids (Velocity Potential) – Viscous Flow in Boundary Layers • Methods of solving – Analytical solutions – CFD 30/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Unsteady State Flow • Velocity – function of position and time • Solution techniques (Converting PDEs into one or more ODEs) – Method of combination of variables • Useful for only semi-infinite regions • Initial and boundary condition at infinity combined into one – Method of separation of variables • Splitting PDEs into two or more ODEs • Final solution – infinite sum of products of solutions of ODEs – Method of sinusoidal response • Useful in case of external periodic disturbances 30/08/2011 Transport Phenomena .

• Solution – Setup problem using equations of change – Governing equation for velocity – Initial/Boundary conditions 30/08/2011 Transport Phenomena . Presume the flow to be laminar. At t=0. No pressure gradient and gravitational force in x-direction.Example – Flow near a wall (Semi-infinite) • A semi-infinite body of liquid with constant density and viscosity is bounded below by horizontal surface. solid surface is set in motion in positive x-direction. Find velocity distribution.

Example – Flow near a wall (Semi-infinite) • Governing equation in terms of ODE • where • Boundary Conditions • Solution 03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Example – Flow near a wall Results • Velocity Profile • Boundary layer thickness – Distance ‘y’ for which velocity vx has dropped to a value of 0.01v0 – Measure of the extent to which momentum has penetrated into the body of the fluid 03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Steady state reaches at time t Infinity • Governing Equations • Initial/Boundary Conditions • Dimensionless Variables 03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena .Example – Flow Between Two Parallel Plates • Unsteady state flow between two parallel plates (fixed plate at a distance ‘b’ from the moving plate).

Example – Flow Between Two Parallel Plates • Governing Equation in terms of dimensionless variables • Solution – Steady state (at time t Infinity) – Transient • Method of separation of (dependent) variables 03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Equation of Change for Vorticity • Multidimensional flow problems involving velocity and pressure as dependent variables – Difficult to solve analytically – Need to eliminate one of the dependent variables • Modifications in the equation of motion – Take curl of equation of motion • Need to use vector identity • Equation of change for vorticity (constant density and viscosity) – Prob 3D.2 • Solving Procedure (viscous flow problems) – Continuity equation & Vorticity equation along with initial and boundary conditions Velocity distribution – Use N-S equation to get pressure distribution 03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena .

Solving Problems using Stream Function • Stream Function – Allows to represent two entities (velocity components of two-dimensional flows) with a single function that satisfies continuity equaiton. – In rectangular coordinates (for 2-D incompressible flow) – Surfaces of constant ψ Streamlines – Volumetric flow between two surfaces (ψ1 and ψ2) is proportional to ψ2 .2-1 (For planar and axisymmetric flows) 03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena .ψ1 • Equation of motion in terms of stream function – Table 4.

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