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By Amol Deshpande

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Introduction

Study of problems involving more than one independent variable

Unsteady State Flow Viscous Flow More Than One Direction (Stream Function) Flow of Inviscid fluids (Velocity Potential) Viscous Flow in Boundary Layers

Methods of solving

Analytical solutions CFD

30/08/2011 Transport Phenomena

Velocity function of position and time Solution techniques (Converting PDEs into one or more ODEs)

Method of combination of variables

Useful for only semi-infinite regions Initial and boundary condition at infinity combined into one

Splitting PDEs into two or more ODEs Final solution infinite sum of products of solutions of ODEs

Useful in case of external periodic disturbances

30/08/2011 Transport Phenomena

A semi-infinite body of liquid with constant density and viscosity is bounded below by horizontal surface. At t=0, solid surface is set in motion in positive x-direction. Find velocity distribution. No pressure gradient and gravitational force in x-direction. Presume the flow to be laminar. Solution

Setup problem using equations of change Governing equation for velocity

Initial/Boundary conditions

30/08/2011

Transport Phenomena

Governing equation in terms of ODE where Boundary Conditions Solution

03/09/2011

Transport Phenomena

Velocity Profile

Distance y for which velocity vx has dropped to a value of 0.01v0 Measure of the extent to which momentum has penetrated into the body of the fluid

03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena

Unsteady state flow between two parallel plates (fixed plate at a distance b from the moving plate). Steady state reaches at time t Infinity Governing Equations Initial/Boundary Conditions

Dimensionless Variables

03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena

Governing Equation in terms of dimensionless variables Solution Steady state (at time t Infinity) Transient

Method of separation of (dependent) variables

03/09/2011

Transport Phenomena

Multidimensional flow problems involving velocity and pressure as dependent variables

Difficult to solve analytically Need to eliminate one of the dependent variables

Take curl of equation of motion Need to use vector identity Equation of change for vorticity (constant density and viscosity)

Prob 3D.2

Continuity equation & Vorticity equation along with initial and boundary conditions Velocity distribution Use N-S equation to get pressure distribution

03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena

Stream Function

Allows to represent two entities (velocity components of two-dimensional flows) with a single function that satisfies continuity equaiton. In rectangular coordinates (for 2-D incompressible flow) Surfaces of constant Streamlines Volumetric flow between two surfaces (1 and 2) is proportional to 2 - 1

Table 4.2-1 (For planar and axisymmetric flows)

03/09/2011 Transport Phenomena

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