CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

INTRODUCTION
- Four aspects of classroom management: 1. Group work 2. Communication in classroom 3. Discipline in classroom 4. Classroom management problems

GR OUP WORK I N CLA SSROOM

A. MEANING of GROUP WORK. Group – a collection of individuals. members need to come together – get somthing done / produce something using knowledge and skills. B. PURPOSE of GROUP WORK.

1. Transmit knowledge - Groupteaching provides students with knowledge and understanding of subject. 2. Enable students to acquire relevant skills of communication. - Direct approach of communication : to question, to differ, to provide responses instantly. 3. Acquire skills of discussion & argument.

C. FORMS / STRUCTURES of GROUP TEACHING. 1. PAIR WORK. - To brainstorm ideas / examine and describe pictures / objects. - Teacher has to be present and participate in discussion. 2. PEER DISCUSSION. - Students conduct the discussion ( teacher is away ) - Students work together - Students are actively involved and responsible 3. FORMAL TUTORIAL GROUP - Students establish the group ( allow to choose own members ) - Teacher: * becomes the initiator / focus of the discussion * answer question – raised by students * direct students in group to answer questions

D. BRAINSTORMING & BUZZ GROUP ACTIVTIES. - Encourage a free-flowing & uninhibited sharing & listening of ideas. - To elicit students’ info about ideas. Steps for the technique : 1. Teacher : - writes topic on board - calls for ideas from class - writes down all ideas given. * master list is ready. 2. Students : - seek clarification - overlap ideas : restated

3. Students make list of own ideas : 3 / 4 main lists. ( it may help if teacher specifies how many ideas needed.) 4. Students rank ideas – order of importance. 5. Class vote on ideas in order of importance - rank 1 – 5. 6. Ideas – discussed in full.

COMMUNI CA TION I N CLAS SROOM

Definition of Communication Ø Communication is the transmission of thought from one mind to another. (Highet,1964: The Art of Teaching) Ø Communication as social interaction performed through messages. (Gerbner, 1968) Ø Communication as the process to convey information, signals, signs or messages. It is a process which builds upon experience and previous understanding. (Feneey, Christensen and Moravcik, 1983)

Effective Communication

Receptiveness · Indicates to the teacher that the students are ready and are interested in listening to what the teacher is going to say. · Examples: keeping quiet and indicating a readiness to listen, asking questions about the topic or the lesson, facial expressions that indicate keenness.

Accuracy · Refers to the active use of the information received by the receiver. · The criterion of accuracy requires that understanding is validated through the ‘correct’ predictions of verbalizations or other behaviours required by the sender of the message. · A teacher, therefore, needs to ensure that her instructions and explanations are received accurately before moving to new info or activities.

Mobility · The teacher as the sender of messages cannot assume that her students, as listeners, perceive and understand the events described in her messages in the same way she herself does. · A teacher shows mobility when she uses demonstration as a technique of teaching or gives many examples to explain concepts. · Teacher also bridges the gap and shows mobility if she uses events

Responsiveness · Responsiveness is related to feedback. That is when the students respond to what they have received. · Positive responses include yes, and nods. Negative responses include glassy stares or a suggestion to change the topic.

Skills in Communication

Attending behaviour · This is when a teacher indicates that she shares student’s feelings and she wishes to help students with their problems. · Examples of attending behaviours: ü Provides guidance by giving hints and clues to help students pick out and determine the correct answer. ü Pose leading questions about the lessons to the students to prompt participation. ü Gives credits to part of answers that are correct although the overall answers may not be right.

Active listening
· A teacher is showing active listening if she is able to interpret the content of the responses of his students. In other words, she identifies and accepts the different emotions or objectives underlying each student’s answer. · A teacher can show active listening through: ü Eye contact ü Facial expressions ü Verbal encouragement

Reflection
· This is when the teacher states an opinion, a wish, belief or preference to the class or when she asks a question which reflects her personal view. · To provide direction, suggest alternatives or redirect thinking among students towards the real issues.

Inventory questioning
· This is when a teacher uses a set of questions to help students describe more clearly or to become more forthright in thought, feeling or action. · Example: when she rephrase questions and uses different words which seek to assist students, she can begins with a question such as, Tell me…, Would you say this is correct…?, Why…? Do you think…?

Encouraging alternatives
· The teacher acts to get a student to clarify further what she is saying, for example, a teacher will provide an answer or a suggestion as an alternative, then seek 2 or more alternatives from students. · A teacher can ask for opinion, interpretation or explanation in various ways. · She can also ask for alternative meanings to answers given by other

CLASSROOM INTERACTION STYLE
1. AUTHORITARIAN • Vigorous discipline and expect swift • • • •
obedience Make no indication that the care for the student No effort to organize the class activity Discussion among students is discouraged Student do not interrupt teacher

CLASSROOM INTERACTION STYLE
2. DEMOCRATIC

• Gives limits and control but also
give independence to student • Discipline is given after careful consideration • Teacher more open to verbal interaction • Students are praised and encouraged

CLASSROOM INTERACTION STYLE
3. LAISSEZ-FAIRE

• Teacher has few demands or control

(permissive) • Accepts the students impulses and actions and is unlikely to monitor their behavior • Teacher more concerned with the students emotional well being than classroom control/academic concern • Student have difficulty in learning socially acceptable behavior

CLASSROOM INTERACTION STYLE
4. INDIFFERENT

• Teacher not very involve in the classroom

and appear uninterested towards the students • Teacher don’t bother to make preparation for class • Teacher use same material every year • Lack or no skill/confidence/courage to discipline students • Students have low achievement and

DI SCIPLI NE I N CLAS SROOM

DEFINITION Ø Its meaning can be referred to as regimentation, that is, a control of behavior usually through the use of force or physical punishment. Ø Discipline as a concept is seen to be positive. When someone is describe as a disciplined person, it means that one’s attitude and behavior, considered good, effective and desirable are acceptable to parents, teachers and society alike. Ø Specific to education, the term discipline is taken to mean both a state and a process of creating law and order in the classroom and in the school. Discipline is related to the need to guide students to observe human and social ethics and moral values.

Rationale for maintaining discipline Discipline is essential in school because teachers not only teach students subjects but at the same time they educate students with ethic and moral values. Discipline is an essential process in the classroom because without it the process of education cannot take place.

INDISCIPLINED BEHAVIOUR IN SCHOOL TODAY Schools in Malaysia seem to be experiencing an increase indiscipline behaviour. Common cases of indiscipline problems among school students: 1. Fooling around in class - Breaking rules in the class when teachers are teaching (including sleeping, chatting or talking, etc) 2. Delaying entering class - Coming to class not according to time or extending the recess hours on purpose. 3. Not observing examination rules - Not following teacher’s instruction, talking and cheating

4. Breaking library rules -Scratching and writing on books, talking and stealing 5. Not obeying regulations when undergoing games or sports practical -Include scolding referees, playing rough with friends, not wearing sports uniform 6. Destroying school property -Stealing and breaking of equipment and other properties

FACTORS AFFECTING DISCIPLINE Out-of-school Factors Ø Violence in society · Acts of vandalism, drug addiction, theft, uncontrollable behavior and bullying tactics are aspects of human behavior, which affect school children today. · Children read, hear and see on television negative and violent examples of behavior that easily affect their attitudes, mental well being and sensitivity.

Ø The ‘ Me’ Generation · Developed because of our emphasis on materialism · When children are encouraged to feel important and are given the best, they tend to think in a more selfish manner; their needs and interests have to come first.

Ø The Lack of a Secure Family Environment · The instability caused by divorces, single parenthood and two income families resulting in latchkey children provides an unhealthy and negative environment for children.

In school Factors Ø Boredom · There are many learning situations, which prove, unchallenging and boring to students. · Provide uninteresting and challenging lessons. · Give great emphasis on cognitive and academic achievement – not interested in shaping the children’s moral values and attitude. · More attention to fast learners slow learners struggle alone.

Ø Unclear limits of behavior

· Do not clearly and specifically inform students of the standards of acceptable behavior in school. · School rules, which are clearly written down and justly enforced, give students a clear indication of what is tolerated and or not tolerated.

Ø Outlet of Expression · Students must feel that they are accepted and liked by teachers and their friends – have positive feeling about school.

· If schools are run in an authoritarian manner, without any attention given to individual needs and with many negative and repressive forms of punishment to bring about discipline, then students will find that they lack acceptable outlets for expression – therefore, resort to indiscipline behavior to attract attention.

CL ASSRO OM MANAGE MENT PRO BLE MS

-focuses on some common issues -overview looks on problems related to:

students in class - low motivated students - low achieving students - students who need remedial education physical class condition - overcrowded class - ill equipped class - floating class

PROBLEMS RELATED TO STUDENTS IN CLASSROOM Types of students Low motivated students definition Those who don’t enjoy/show interest in school work characters Not stupid, or mentally slow, or mentally lazy, simply not motivated, like to sever themselves from class activities Feel inadequate, feel they are fated to fail, lack confidence, feel they don’t have ability/not strong enough to achieve excellence effects Have the drop outs potentiality coping Teachers: - awaken interest in subject taught by being creative

Low achieving students

Those who quite content with low exam results, do not strive for excellence

Lead to disciplinary problems

Teachers: -tolerant with mistakes rather than expecting immediate success

Students who need remedial education

Remedial/compen satory class for pupils who don’t reach the level or standard required in school

Teachers: - to understand the concept of remedial education; it is not a class for handicapped children or gifted children.

PROBLEMS RELATED TO PHYSICAL CLASS CONDITION problems overcrowded class, ill equipped class, floating class effect Class becomes noisy and difficult to manage because of limited space for classroom activities coping - seeking alternative space such as using library, school hall, etc - arranging chairs and tables in variety ways in classroom

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