Submitted to Dr.B.M.Gurupadayya (prof.), Mr.R.S.Chandan(, Department of pharmaceutical analysis, J.S.S.C.P.

12/8/12 .GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY (GC-MS) Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a method that combines the features of  gas-liquid chromatography and  mass spectrometry to identify different substances within a test sample.


The GC-MS is composed of two major building blocks: the gas chromatograph  and the mass spectrometer.g. diameter. film Click to edit Master subtitle well as the phase thickness) as style properties (e. 5% phenyl polysiloxane). The difference in the chemical properties between different molecules  in mixture will separate the 12/8/12 a . The gas chromatograph utilizes a capillary column which depends on the column's dimensions (length.

ionize.• The molecules take different amounts of time (called the retention time) to come out of (elute from) the gas chromatograph. and detect the ionized molecules separately. The mass spectrometer does this by breaking each molecule into ionized  fragments and detecting these fragments using their mass to charge 12/8/12 ratio. and this allows the mass spectrometer downstream to capture. accelerate. deflect. • .

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These two components. The mass spectrometry process normally requires a very pure sample 12/8/12 while gas chromatography using a . used together. It is not possible to make an accurate identification of a particular molecule by gas chromatography or mass spectrometry alone. allow a much finer degree of substance identification than either unit used separately.

when an identifying mass spectrum appears at a characteristic 12/8/12 retention time in a GC-MS analysis. as it is extremely unlikely that two different molecules will behave in the same way in both a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer. it . Therefore. Combining the two processes reduces the possibility of error.Sometimes two different molecules can also have a similar pattern of ionized fragments in a mass spectrometer (mass spectrum).

Types of Mass Spectrometer Detectors The most common spectrometer (MS) type of mass associated with a gas chromatograph (GC) is the quadrupole mass spectrometer. Another relatively common detector is the ion trap mass spectrometer. 12/8/12 .

Types of Ionization Electron Ionization By far the most common and perhaps standard form of ionization is  electron ionization (EI). The molecules enter into the MS (the source is a quadrupole or the ion trap itself in an ion trap MS) where they are bombarded with free electrons emitted from a filament. 12/8/12 .

  Positive Chemical Ionization In Positive Chemical Ionization (PCI) the reagent gas interacts with the target molecule. most often with a proton exchange. typically  methane or ammonia is introduced into the mass spectrometer. 12/8/12 .Chemical Ionization In  chemical ionization a reagent gas. This produces the species in relatively high amounts.

This decreased energy typically leaves the fragment in great supply.Negative Chemical Ionization In Negative Chemical Ionization (NCI) the reagent gas decreases the impact of the free electrons on the target analyte. 12/8/12 .

Beverage and Perfume Analysis Ø Ø Ø Ø 12/8/12 .Applications Ø Environmental Monitoring and Cleanup Criminal Forensics Law Enforcement Security Food.

699 Google search 2. 12/8/12 . Instrumental analysis by Skoog and Haller page no:876-879.REFERENCES 1. 3.Chatwal page no: 2. Instrumental methods of chemical analysis GurdeepR.

THAN KU 12/8/12 .

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