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The Consumer Research Process
1. To Understand the Importance of Consumer Research for Firms and Their Brands, as Well as Consumers. 2. To Understand the Steps in the Consumer Research Process.
3. To Understand the Importance of Establishing Specific Research Objectives as the First Step in the Design of a Consumer Research Project.
Chapter Two Slide 2
Learning Objectives (continued)
4. To Understand the Purposes and Types of Secondary Consumer Research That Is Available for Making Decisions or Planning Future Consumer Research. 5. To Understand Specific Features and Applications of Different Research Methods to Be Carried Out in Consumer Research Studies. 6. To Understand Where Data Analysis and Reporting of Findings Fit in the Research Process. 7. To Understand How Each Element of the Consumer Research Process Adds to the Overall Outcome of the Research Study.
Chapter Two Slide 3
Why Do Marketers Regularly Test Print Ads Like This One Before They Are Placed in the Media? Chapter Two Slide 4 .
To Test the Impact of the Message Before Spending Large Amounts of Money Chapter Two Slide 5 .
The Importance of the Consumer Research Process • Marketers must understand customers to design effective: – marketing strategies – products – promotional messages Chapter Two Slide 6 .
2 Chapter Two Slide 7 .The Consumer Research Process Figure 2.
The Consumer Research Process • Secondary research • Primary research – Qualitative – Quantitative Chapter Two Slide 8 .
Developing Research Objectives • Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design. Chapter Two Slide 9 . • A written statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed.
Discussion Questions • Assume you are planning to open a new pizza restaurant near your campus. – What might be three objectives of a research plan for your new business? – How could you gather these data? Chapter Two Slide 10 .
Secondary Data • Data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand • Includes internal and external data Chapter Two Slide 11 .
search engines • Commercial data is also available from market research firms Chapter Two Slide 12 . newspapers. books.Types of Secondary Data Internal Data • Data generated in-house • May include analysis of customer files • Useful for calculating customer lifetime value External Data • Data collected by an outside organization • Includes federal government. periodicals.
Discussion Questions Personal Privacy • Many people do not like the fact that their personal data are used for marketing. • How can marketers justify their need for data? • How can they acquire data and maintain customer privacy? Chapter Two Slide 13 .
Designing Primary Research Qualitative Research • Depth Interviews • Focus Groups • Projective Techniques • Metaphor Analysis Chapter Two Slide 14 .
Qualitative Collection Method Depth Interview • • • • Also called one-on-one interview Usually 20 minutes to 1 hour Nonstructured Interviewer will often probe to get more feedback (see following slide for probing) • Session is usually recorded Chapter Two Slide 15 .
Probing Options for Interviews Figure 2.3 Chapter Two Slide 16 .
Qualitative Collection Method Focus Group • 8-10 participants • Respondents are recruited through a screener questionnaire • Lasts about 2 hours • Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis • Often held in front of two-way mirrors • Online focus groups are growing Chapter Two Slide 17 .
Discussion Guides for Research • Step-by-step outline for depth interviews and focus groups • Interviewers will often “improvise” and go beyond the discussion guide Chapter Two Slide 18 .
4 Chapter Two Slide 19 .Figure 2.Focus Group Discussion Guide .
Qualitative Collection Method Projective Techniques • Research procedures designed to identify consumers’ subconscious feelings and underlying motivations • Consist of a variety of disguised “tests” Chapter Two Slide 20 .
” The researcher asks the respondent(s) to react.. and to explain the link. the participant(s) will be given a situation and asked to “act out” the role(s). to each word by stating or (in a focus group setting) writing on a pad the first word that comes to mind. Chapter Two Slide 21 . different for brands or products. to serve as stimuli. The Storytelling respondents are asked to discuss or tell a story based on their response to a photo or some other visual stimulus. some of them to be studied and some just as “filler. Role Playing Is quite similar to storytelling.Common Projective Exercises Table 2. range of print ads. Sentence Completion Photo/Visual The researcher creates/selects a series of photos of consumers. instead of telling a story. often with regard to a product or brand.1 (excerpt) Description Word Associations The researcher has a list of words. or particular selling situation. The researcher has a series of incomplete sentences that the respondent(s) needs to complete with a word or phrase. however. one-at-a time. etc.
Chapter Two Slide 22 .Qualitative Collection Method Metaphor Analysis • Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication • Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior.
and interests Chapter Two Slide 23 . including blogs and discussion forums • Methodology to capture consumers’ experiences. opinions. forecasts. needs.Qualitative Collection Method “Looking-In” • Look at information from threads and postings on social media.
Designing Primary Research Quantitative Research • Observation • Experimentation • Survey questionnaires Chapter Two Slide 24 .
Data Collection Methods Observational Research • Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products • Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes Chapter Two Slide 25 .
Data Collection Methods Mechanical Observational Research • Uses mechanical or electronic device to record consumer behavior or response • Consumers’ increased use of highly convenient technologies will create more records for marketers • Audits are a type of mechanical observation which monitor sales Chapter Two Slide 26 .
Data Collection Methods Experimentation • Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables • An experiment is usually controlled with only some variables manipulated at a time while the others are constant • Test markets are conducted on a single market area • Experimentation can be conducted in laboratories or in the field Chapter Two Slide 27 .
Discussion Questions • What might direct marketers test in experiments? • How can they use the results? Chapter Two Slide 28 .
2 Mail Cost Low Telephone Moderate Personal Interview High Online Low Speed Response rate Geographic flexibility Interviewer bias Interviewer Supervision Slow Low Excellent N/A N/A Immediate Moderate Good Moderate Easy Slow High Difficult Problematic Difficult Fast Self-selected Excellent N/A N/A Chapter Two Slide 29 .Data Collection Methods Table 2.
asked of a similar sample. • A study has reliability if the same questions. produce the same findings.Validity and Reliability • If a study has validity. it collects the appropriate data for the study. Chapter Two Slide 30 .
Attitude Scales Likert scales • Asked to agree or disagree with a statement • Easy to prepare & interpret • Simple for consumers Semantic differential scales Behavior intention scales Rank-order scales • Includes bipolar adjectives • Relatively easy to construct and administer • Measures likelihood consumers will act a certain way • Easy to construct and administer • Items ranked in order of preference in terms of some criteria Chapter Two Slide 31 .
Customer Satisfaction Measurement • Customer Satisfaction Surveys – Analysis of Expectations versus Experience • Mystery Shoppers • Customer Complaint Analysis Chapter Two Slide 32 .
• A sampling plan addresses: – Whom to survey – How many to survey – How to select them • Researcher must choose probability or nonprobabililty sample. Chapter Two Slide 33 .Sampling and Data Collection • Samples are a subset of the population used to estimate characteristics of the entire population.
• Final report includes executive summary. and graphs. • All responses are tabulated and analyzed.Data Analysis and Reporting Findings • Open-ended questions are coded and quantified. Chapter Two Slide 34 . body. tables.
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