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CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR

VIBRATIONS

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WHAT IS A VIBRATION ?

VIBRATION IS SIMPLY THE MOTION OF A MACHINE OR MACHINE PART BACK AND FORTH FROM ITS POSITION OF REST

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THE CAUSE OF VIBRATION IS A FORCE WHICH IS CHANGING IN EITHER ITS DIRECTION OR ITS AMOUNT Force F Frequency

Mechanical
Structure

Motion X
Frequency *

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THE PARAMETERS WHICH IDENTIFY A VIBRATION AMPLITUDE PEAK TO PEAK DISPLACEMENT

PHASE
CYCLE FREQUENCY VIBRATION VELOCITY VIBRATION ACCELERATION

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AMPLITUDE
MAX VIBRATION PART DISPLACEMENT FROM ITS NEUTRAL POSITION

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PEAK TO PEAK DISPLACEMENT


THE TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELED BY THE VIBRATION PART, FROM ONE EXTREME LIMIT OF TRAVEL TO THE OTHER EXTREME LIMIT OF TRAVEL

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PHASE
THE POSITION OF A VIBRATION PART AT A GIVEN INSTANT WITH REFERENCE TO A FIXED POINT OR ANOTHER VIBRATING PART

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CYCLE
THE MOTION OF THE VIBRATION PART FROM ITS NEUTRAL POSITION TO THE TOP LIMIT OF TRAVEL BACK THROUGH THE NEUTRAL POSITION TO THE BOTTOM LIMIT OF TRAVEL AND ITS RETURN TO THE NEUTRAL POSITION

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FREQUENCY
THE NUMBER OF TIMES A COMPLETE MOTION CYCLE TAKE PLACE DURING THE PERIOD OF ONE SECOND

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VIBRATION VELOCITY
THE SPEED OF VIBRATING PART IN ITS MOTION BECAUSE OF THE VELOCITY CHANGE POINT BY POINT IN THE CYCLE FOR MEASUREMENT IS SELECTED THE HIGHEST THAT IS REALIZED WHEN THE VIBRATING PART PASS THROUGH THE NEUTRAL POSITION

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VIBRATION ACCELERATION
THE ACCELERATION OF VIBRATING PART IN ITS MOTION

BECAUSE OF THE ACCELERATION CHANGE POINT BY POINT IN THE CYCLE FOR MEASUREMENT IS SELECTED THE HIGHEST
THAT IS REALIZED WHEN THE VIBRATING PART RICH THE LIMIT OF TRAVEL

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The amplitude and frequency of the rotor vibrations are very important for a centrifugal compressor.

They are the measure of the mechanical behavior of a compressor.

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The rotor vibration amplitude must not cause: Contact between rotor and stator parts Oil seals and dry gas seals overloading Fatigue in the bearings

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The typical vibrations of the centrifugal compressors can be generally classified with reference to the frequency of the vibration. According to this classification the vibration may be: synchronous the vibration frequency corresponds to the speed rotation of the machine

asynchronous the vibration frequency is different from the speed rotation of the machine

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SYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION
= R
The most common causes result : Unbalance in the rotor system

Rotor and Stator parts contact


Fouling Deposit

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ASYNCHRONOUS VIBRATION
It is necessary to do another distinction between frequency vibration and machine rotation:

Frequency Vibration multiple of

R
R

= KR
Frequency Vibration lower or higher than

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FREQUENCY VIBRATION MULTIPLE OF R

= KR
The most common causes result :

Coupling Misalignment

Loose of interference in some


rotor components

= 2R

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FREQUENCY VIBRATION LOWER OR HIGHER THAN R


The most common causes result :

High clearance in Journal Bearings

=0.5 R

Oil Whirl / Oil Whip


Aerodynamic effects

=(0.4 - 0.5) R =(0.1- 0.2) R

(rotating stall in diffusers)


Cross- Coupling

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WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS OF VIBRATIONS ?


The main problem that we have to consider when a rotor-bearings system

is subject to a periodic force


is the phenomenon of Resonance.

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RESONANCE
A system is in resonance when vibration displacement becomes maximum.

This occurs when the frequency of a periodic force (excitation frequency),


applied to a rotor-bearings system, corresponds to a natural frequency of that system.

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NATURAL FREQUENCY

The vibration frequency of a system when it vibrate without damping forces.

It is a characteristic of each real system.

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How we can avoid this problem


A complex system like a centrifugal compressor rotor has many natural frequencies that we call Critical Speeds. The most important are the first and the second.

It is necessary to determine the field operation speeds that avoid the resonance.

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SM

SM

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AMPLIFICATION FACTOR To shoot this objective has been defined the Amplification Factor ( AF ). That is an index of maximum vibration displacement.

The value of AF shows how is dangerous the rotor vibration mode.

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FIELD OPERATION SPEEDS


Generally a centrifugal compressor works between the first and the second critical speed.

The field is limited from the Separation Margin (SM ) that is a function of AF.

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SM

SM

g
If

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If AF < 2.5 no SM is required. The response is considered critically dumped 2.5 < AF <3.55 is required:

- a SM of 15% above the maximum continuous speed

- a SM of 5% below the minimum operating speed

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When AF > 3.55 :

If the critical response peak is below the minimum operating speed, the required SM is equal to the following:
SM=100-[84+6/(AF-3)] ( % of minimum speed)

If the response peak is above the trip speed, the required SM is equal to the following: SM=[126-6/(AF-3)]-100 (% of maximum speed)

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