Personality & Emotion

What is Personality?

Personality Traits
Personality Determinants
• Heredity • Environment

• Situation

Psychometric Testing: The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

Personality Types
• Extroverted or Introverted (E or I)
(focus their attention)

• Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) collect
information, facts vs. gut

• Thinking or Feeling (T or F) process
information logic vs. emotion

• Perceiving or Judging (P or J) orientation
to outer world, orderly & in-control vs. flexible & spontaneous 3

Psychometric Testing: Sixteen Primary Traits 4 .

Psychometric Testing: The Big Five Model 5 .

and entertaining and energizing others. Decisive. These people tend to be your team players and are supportive and helpful to others.C. sharing thoughts. and immediate results. Influence: Optimistic & Outgoing. They plan ahead. They prefer participating on teams. Cautious & Correct. Learning Model The DISC Profile is a non-judgemental tool for understanding behavioural types and personality styles. and what to know "how" and "why". They prefer being behind the scene.S. It helps people explore behaviour across four primary dimensions: Dominance: Direct. Steadiness: Sympathetic & Cooperative. Driving. These people tend to be independent and results driven. taking action. working in consistent and predictable ways. constantly check for accuracy. They are strong-willed people who enjoy challenges. 6 . They are often good listeners and avoid change and conflict • • • Conscientiousness: Concerned.Other Psychometric Tests Used • • • • Thomas DiSC Profiling The D. These individuals tend to be very social and out going. These people are often focused on details and quality.I. The bottom line is their focus tends to be on the bottom line and results.

Other Psychometric Tests Used • Hermann Brain Dominance Instrument (HBDI) leftbrain_rightbrain. how much attention contact and recognition you want from others • Control: how much influence and responsibility you exercise how much you want others to lead and establish procedures • Affection: how close and warm you are with others and to what extent you want others to show warmth and affection to you 7 .docLeft brain and right brain predominance • FIRO B: leadership styles in relation to interpersonal relationships • Inclusion: how much generally you include others in your life.

evaluator and specialist) 8 . team worker or resource investigator) • Cerebral roles (plant. implementer. completer) • People oriented (coordinator. monitor.Other Psychometric Tests Used • Belbin Team Role Profiling • Assesses nine team roles: • Action oriented (shaper.

Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB • • • • • • Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Propensity for risk taking Type A personality 9 .

Locus of Control 10 .

Machiavellianism Conditions Favoring High Machs • Direct interaction • Minimal rules and regulations • Distracting emotions 11 .

Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring 12 .

13 . – Exist in larger organizations with stable environments. • Low Risk-taking Managers – Are slower to make decisions. – Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations. – Require more information before making decisions. – Use less information to make decisions.Risk-Taking • High Risk-taking Managers – Make quicker decisions. • Risk Propensity – Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.

Personality Types 14 .

Personality Types 15 .

Achieving Personality-Job Fit (John Holland) Personality Types • Realistic • Investigative • Social • Conventional • Enterprising • Artistic 16 .

Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations 17 .

independent • ESTJ organizers.MBTI • INTJ visionaries. flexible & spontaneous 18 . decisive • ENTP conceptualizers. emotion • Perceiving or Judging (P or J) orientation to outer world. entrepreneurial MBTI should not be used as a selection tool • Personality Types • Extroverted or Introverted (E or I) (focus their attention) • Sensing or Intuitive (S or N) collect information. analytical. critical . innovative. logical. skeptical. original ideas. orderly & in-control vs. facts vs. gut • Thinking or Feeling (T or F) process information logic vs. realistic.

– openness to experience . – emotional stability.Big Five • Preferred qualities are – conscientiousness .

Some Others • Thomas Profiling for analyzing gap between individual’s behavior and company’s requirements • FIRO-B for assessing developmental efforts • PAPI (PA preference inventory) for recruitment how closely individual matches job requirement .

high achievement motivation. successful sales people are internals • Externals – More complaining. are better decision makers.Locus of control • Internals – Explore the environment actively. better decision makers. can take initiative. are followers. do well in structured jobs where success depends on complying to orders .

Machiavellianism • High machs manipulate more. can persuade more are less persuaded less • Are high machs good employees? – Better in jobs requiring bargaining skills. win more.selling skills .

less susceptible to external influences. less likely to seek approval. more unconventional. are job satisfied • Low self esteem. are less job satisfied .Self Esteem • High self esteem – take more risks. are approval seeking.dependent on positive approval from others.

Self Monitoring (being politically correct) • Ability to adjust behavior to external environment • High self monitors can conform their behavior to the behavior of others • Receive better performance ratings • Likely to emerge as leaders • Receive more promotions • Occupy central positions in organizations • Show less commitment to organizations • Are more mobile in their careers .

Risk Taking • Those in large organizations are generally more risk averse than those in small businesses .

Proactive Personality • Take initiative to improve the current circumstances • Create new ones • Do not passively react to situations • Challenge the status quo • Are entrepreneurial • Are more likely to achieve career success .

Relationships among Occupational Personality Types 27 .

What Are Emotions? Affect A broad range of emotions that people experience. 28 . Moods Feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus. Emotions Intense feelings that are directed at someone or something.

29 . – Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strong negative emotions that interfered with individual and organizational efficiency. • Emotions of any kind are disruptive to organizations.Emotions.Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB • The “myth of rationality” – Organizations are not emotion-free.

What Are Emotions? (cont’d) 30 .

Felt versus Displayed Emotions 31 .

Emotion Dimensions • Variety of emotions – Positive – Negative • Intensity of emotions – Personality – Job Requirements • Frequency and duration of emotions – How often emotions are exhibited. – How long emotions are displayed. 32 .

33 . the more likely people are to confuse them.Emotion Continuum • The closer any two emotions are to each other on the continuum.

– Are better at reading others’ emotions. – Are innately less able to read and to identify with others’ emotions. – Experience emotions more intensely. – Have less need to seek social approval by showing positive emotions. – Are more comfortable in expressing emotions. – Display emotions more frequently.Gender and Emotions • Women – Can show greater emotional expression. 34 . • Men – Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent with the male image.

Gender and Emotions: Reasons for Differences • Genetic: Innate ability to read others • Socialization practices: men taught to be tough and showing emotions is inconsistent with this image • Need for Social Approval: high in women show more emotions like happiness 35 .

External Constraints on Emotions Organizational Influences Cultural Influences Individual Emotions 36 .

• Leadership – Emotions are important to acceptance of messages from organizational leaders. • Motivation – Emotional commitment to work and high motivation are strongly linked. • Decision Making – Emotions are an important part of the decision-making process in organizations.OB Applications of Understanding Emotions • Ability and Selection – Emotions affect employee effectiveness. 37 .

Ability and Selection • • Emotional Intelligence (EI) – Self-awareness – Self-management – Self-motivation – Empathy – Social skills Research Findings – High EI scores. characterize high performers. not high IQ scores. 38 .

• Deviant Workplace Behaviors – Negative emotions can lead to employee deviance in the form of actions that violate established norms and threaten the organization and its members.OB Applications of Understanding Emotions • Interpersonal Conflict – Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions are strongly intertwined. • Productivity failures • Property theft and destruction • Political actions • Personal aggression 39 .

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