Socialization

The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture

Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Social Experience
Socialization
• The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn patterns of their culture

Personality
• A person’s fairly consistent patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting
– Could a person’s personality develop without social interaction?
Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

Nature and Nurture
• • Biological sciences–The role of nature
– Elements of society have a naturalistic root.

Social sciences–The role of nurture
– Most of who and what we are as a species is learned, or social in nature. – Behaviorism

Nature or nurture?
– It’s both, but from a sociological perspective, nurture matters more.
Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. but suffered permanent disabilities Sociology. Genie • Somewhat less isolated. . All rights reserved.Social Isolation Effect on nonhuman primates: Harlows’ experiments • Six months of complete isolation was enough to disturb development. Effect on children: Anna and Isabelle • Years of isolation left both children damaged and only capable of approximating a normal life after intensive rehabilitation. a division of Pearson Education.

Sigmund Freud Elements of Personality • Basic human needs: Eros and thanatos as opposing forces • Developing personality – The id: Basic drives – The ego: Efforts to achieve balance – The superego: Culture within • Managed conflict – Id and superego are in constant states of conflict. a division of Pearson Education. with the ego balancing the two. All rights reserved. Sociology. . 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

– Internalization of social norms – Childhood experiences have lasting impact. .Critical Evaluation of Freud • Studies reflect gender bias. a division of Pearson Education. Sociology. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. • Influences the study of personality • Sociologists note Freud’s contributions. All rights reserved.

12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. . critical thinking Sociology.Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Cognition – How people think and understand Stages of development – Sensorimotor stage: Sensory contact understanding – Preoperational stage: Use of language and other symbols – Concrete operational stage: Perception of causal connections in surroundings – Formal operational stage: Abstract. a division of Pearson Education.

All rights reserved. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. • Do people in all societies pass through Piaget’s four stages? Sociology. • Cognitive stages are the result of biological maturation and social experience. .Critical Evaluation of Piaget • Differed from Freud. viewing the mind as active and creative. a division of Pearson Education.

All rights reserved. a division of Pearson Education. . • Postconventional – Final stage. considers abstract ethical principles Sociology.Lawrence Kohlberg Moral Development • Moral reasoning – The ways in which individuals judge situations as right or wrong • Preconventional – Young children experience the world as pain or pleasure • Conventional – Teens lose selfishness as they learn to define right and wrong in terms of what pleases parents and conforms to cultural norms. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

. generalized to population Sociology. • Research limited to boys.Critical Evaluation of Kohlberg • Like Piaget. viewed moral development as stages • Many people don’t reach the final stage. All rights reserved. a division of Pearson Education. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

Sociology. All rights reserved.Carol Gilligan Gender Factor Compared moral reasoning of girls and boys • Boys develop a justice perspective. . • Critical evaluation –Cultural conditioning accounted for the differences. –Formal rules define right and wrong. • Girls develop a care-and-responsibility perspective. –Male and female morals will probably become more similar as more women enter the workplace. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. a division of Pearson Education. –Personal relationships define reasoning.

Social experience is the exchange of symbols 3.George Herbert Mead Social Self Self–The part of an individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image 1. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other’s point of view. 4. All rights reserved. we become self-aware Sociology. . a division of Pearson Education. By taking the role of the other. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. Self develops from social interaction. 2.

. – Active side of the self is “I” – Objective side of the self is “me” Sociology. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. a division of Pearson Education.Mead • Looking-glass self–A self-image based on how we think others see us • The I and Me: The self has two parts. All rights reserved.

a division of Pearson Education. • Play – Taking the roles of significant others • Games – Taking the roles of several others at once • Generalized other – Widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluating ourselves Sociology. All rights reserved. .Mead Development of Self • Imitation – Infants mimic behavior without understanding intentions. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

Critical Evaluation of Mead • Mead found the root of both self and society in symbolic interaction. a division of Pearson Education. MEAD I and Me FREUD Id and superego Rejected biological origins of I and Me Work together cooperatively Id and superego originated in biology Locked in continual combat Sociology. . 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved. • Critics: Mead doesn’t allow biological elements.

a division of Pearson Education. Erickson Eight stages of development Challenges throughout the life course Stage 1 . 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.Toddlerhood: autonomy (versus doubt and shame) Stage 3 . All rights reserved.Preadolescence: Industriousness (versus inferiority) Sociology.Preschool: Initiative (versus guilt) Stage 4 .Infancy: trust (Versus mistrust) Stage 2 . .Eric H.

Erickson Stages (versus confusion) 5-8 Stage 5 .Middle adulthood: Making a difference (versus self-absorption) Stage 8 . All rights reserved.Young adulthood: Intimacy (versus isolation) Stage 7 . . a division of Pearson Education.Old age: Integrity (versus despair) Sociology. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.Adolescence: Gaining identity Stage 6 .

All rights reserved. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. • Critics: Not everyone confronts the challenges in the same order.Critical Evaluation of Erickson This theory views personality as a lifelong process and success at one stage prepares us for the next challenge. • Not clear if failure to meet one challenge predicts failure in other stages • Do other cultures share Erickson’s definition of successful life? Sociology. . a division of Pearson Education.

a division of Pearson Education. .Agents of Socialization • • • • The Family The School The Peer Group The Mass Media Sociology. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. All rights reserved.

class Sociology. • Parental attention is very important – Bonding and encouragement • Household environment – Stimulates development • Social position – Race. All rights reserved. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. a division of Pearson Education. ethnicity. . religion.The Family • Most important agent – A loving family produces a happy well-adjusted child.

. All rights reserved. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. gender-linked activities are encountered.The School • Experience diversity – Racial and gender clustering • Hidden curriculum – Informal. Sociology. covert lessons • First bureaucracy – Rules and schedule • Gender socialization begins – From grade school through college. a division of Pearson Education.

. social position and age in common • Developing sense of self that goes beyond the family • Young and old attitudes and the “generation gap” • Peers often govern short-term goals while parents influence long-term plans. a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved. • Anticipatory socialization – Practice working toward gaining desired positions Sociology. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.Peer Groups A social group whose members have interests.

videotapes. • Hours of viewing television – Average household = 7 hours per day – Almost half of individuals’ free time – Children average 5 ½ hours per day. • Television. All rights reserved. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. .The Mass Media Impersonal communications aimed at a vast audience • Televisions in the United States – 98% of households have at least one TV. a division of Pearson Education. video games Sociology. – Two-thirds of households have cable satellite.

a division of Pearson Education. the television industry adopted a rating system. . 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. • In 1997. All rights reserved.Criticisms About Programming • Some liberal concerns about race and gender inequality in representation • Some conservative concerns about advancing liberal causes–“politically correct” • Violence in mass media • A 1998 survey: Two-thirds of TV programming contains violence. characters show no remorse and aren’t punished. Sociology.

• Societies organize the life course by age. • Other factors shape lives race class. a division of Pearson Education. ethnicity. All rights reserved. and gender. Sociology. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. . • Stages present problems and transitions that involve learning.Socialization and Life Course • Each stage of life is linked to the biological process.

The Life Course • Childhood (birth through 12) – The “hurried child” • Adolescence (the teenage years) – Turmoil attributed to cultural inconsistencies. conflicting priorities – Middle: 40-60. career and family • Old age (mid-60s and older) – More seniors than teenagers – Less anti-elderly bias – Role exiting Sociology. All rights reserved. a division of Pearson Education. concerns over health. • Adulthood – Early: 20-40. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall. .

• Elisabeth Kübler-Ross stages of dying – Denial – Anger – Negotiation – Resignation – Acceptance Sociology.Dying • 85% of Americans die after age 55. . All rights reserved. a division of Pearson Education. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.Total Institutions A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff. Erving Goffman • Staff supervises all daily life activities • Environment is standardized. a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved. • Formal rules and daily schedules Sociology.

– Some develop an institutionalized personality. humiliations. degradations. a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved. • Total institutions affect people in different ways. and profanations of self” – Staff rebuilds personality using rewards and punishments. . Sociology. – Goffman: “Abasements.Resocialization Efforts to radically change an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment • Staff breaks down identity. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

• If this is so. a division of Pearson Education. committed citizens can change the world. feel and act. indeed. it is the only thing that ever has. All rights reserved. .Are We Free Within Society? • Society shapes how we think.” Sociology. then in what sense are we free? • Margaret Mead: “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful. 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall.

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