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RHEED & LEEDRameez Presented By- Mohammad


Devika Laishram

Basic concept
Source What kind of probe is used? How does the probe reach the sample? Interaction between probe and sample How does the signal of interest reach the analyzer? Characteristics of the analyzer
Source Interaction Analyzer


What kind of probes are available?

Each and every analysis technique is based on the interaction between a probe and a sample. The following probes are generally available:
Electrons Ions Neutrons* Photons Hot cathode, field emission Plasma, liquid metal tips Nuclear reactions (e.g. Spallations-sources)

Heat* A field*

Laser X-ray Synchrotron radiation electric, magnetic fields

Diffraction is a wave phenomenon in which the apparent bending and spreading of waves when they meet an obstruction. Diffraction occurs with electromagnetic waves, such as light and radio waves, and also in sound waves and water waves.

The most conceptually simple example of diffraction is double-slit diffraction, thats why firstly we remember light diffraction.

Width b Variable (500-1500 nm) Wavelength Constant (600 nm) Distance d = Constant

Basic Idea!

Diffraction from a particle and solid

Single particle To understand diffraction we also have to consider what happens when a wave interacts with a single particle. The particle scatters the incident beam uniformly in all directions
Solid material What happens if the beam is incident on solid material? If we consider a crystalline material, the scattered beams may add together in a few directions and reinforce each other to give diffracted beams

Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

A crystal is a periodic structure ( unit cells are repeated regularly) Solid State Physics deals how the waves are propagated through such periodic structures.we can study the crystal structure through the diffraction of photons (X-ray), nuetrons and electrons.
Diffraction X-ray Neutron Electron

The general principles will be the same for each type of waves.

Diffraction Methods
X-Ray Neutron Electron

= 1A E ~ 104 eV interact with electron Penetrating

= 1A
E ~ 0.08 eV interact with nuclei Highly Penetrating

= 2A
E ~ 150 eV interact with electron Less Penetrating

Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

The diffraction depends on the crystal structure and on the wavelength. At optical wavelengths such as 5000 angstroms the superposition of the waves scattered elastically by the individual atoms of a crystal results in ordinary optical refraction. When the wavelength of the radiation is comparable with or smaller than the lattice constant, one can find diffracted beams in directions quite different from the incident radiation.

Diffraction of Waves by Crystals

The structure of a crystal can be determined by studying the diffraction pattern of a beam of radiation incident on the crystal. Beam diffraction takes place only in certain specific directions, much as light is diffracted by a grating. By measuring the directions of the diffraction and the corresponding intensities, one obtains information concerning the crystal structure responsible for diffraction.


Electron Diffraction
Electron diffraction has been used in the analysis of crystal structure. The electron, like the neutron, possesses wave properties;

2k 2 h2 E 40eV 2 2me 2me


Electrons are charged particles and interact strongly with all atoms. So electrons with an energy of a few eV would be completely absorbed by the specimen. In order that an electron beam can penetrate into a specimen , it necessitas a beam of very high energy (50 keV to 1MeV) as well as the specimen must be thin (100-1000 nm)


Electron Diffraction
If low electron energies are used, the penetration depth will be very small (only about 50 A), and the beam will be reflected from the surface. Consequently, electron diffraction is a useful technique for surface structure studies. Electrons are scattered strongly in air, so diffraction experiment must be carried out in a high vacuum. This brings complication and it is expensive as well.


Electron diffraction

in coming electron wave" crystal surface

Electron beam impinges on surface of a crystal low energy electron diffraction diffracts from surface. Acts as wave. Measurement determines momentum eigenstates.

out going waves many grating different directions different spacings Peaks line up. Constructive interference.

Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) from crystal surface

Copyright Michael D. Fayer, 2007

LEED (low energy electron diffraction)

Incident e-s, which are elastically back scattered from a surface, are analyzed from 20-100eV. The e-s possess de Broglie wavelengths of the same order of magnitude as the interatomic spacing between atoms/molecules at surfaces.
o undergo diffraction if the atoms in the surface are arranged periodically

Electron gun produces focused e- beam 10 nA-10 mA E 20-200 eV. Magnetic shield expels residual magnetic fields. Sample positioned at "focus" of hemispherical grids. Diffracted electrons (elastically scattered) and secondary electrons (inelastically scattered) backscattered towards LEED optics in field free region. Diffracted electrons - spots Secondary electrons diffuse background After passing through G1 (ground) accelerated towards phosphor screen. Negative potentials applied to G2 and G3 to repel secondary electrons. Electrons strike phosphor photons. Front-view LEED & rear-view LEED. Image captured on photographic film or video camera.

LEED patterns
From the position of the diffracted beams, the 2D periodicity of the surface unit cell may be deduced as well as variations in the unit cell size induced by adsorption. From the variation of spot intensities with beam energy, the complete surface geometry, including bond lengths and angles, can be obtained.
Si(111) 7 X 7 LEED Pattern

LEED is the principal technique for the determination of surface structures. It may be used in one of two ways: Qualitatively : where the diffraction pattern is recorded and analysis of the spot positions yields information on the size, symmetry and rotational alignment of the adsorbate unit cell with respect to the substrate unit cell.

Information obtained from LEED

Quantitatively : where the intensities of the various diffracted beams are recorded as a function of the incident electron beam energy to generate so-called I-V curves which, by comparison with theoretical curves, may provide accurate information on atomic positions.

LEED patterns for domains

The diffraction pattern for both domains together Which is for A and which for B?

When electron beam diameter is larger than domain size on surface: the presence of multiple (rotational) domains increases complexity of diffraction pattern. Two domains in real space

IV-LEED (Dynamical LEED)

Kinematic LEED: LEED pattern gives information on the size, symmetry and rotational alignment of the surface crystal unit cell. in-plane information. IV-LEED: the intensities of the various diffracted beams are recorded as a function of the incident electron beam energy to generate so-called I-V curves. By comparison with theoretical curves, may provide accurate information on atomic positions. Interlayer information.

Change energy record intensity curve as its function for certain individual spots. (another method is with fixed energy but varied incidence angle).

Structure analysis
Calculation of amplitude (A) and phase (d) due to (a) ion core scattering (b) multiple scattering (c) inelastic events (d) surface vibration (effect of temperature)

Applications and Complications of LEED

Applications of LEED: 1. Surface order and cleanliness most common 2. Surface atomic structure need theory 3. Step density get step height/density from angular beam profile (SPALLED) 4. Phase transition in overlayers - structure may undergo transition with change in coverage or T 5. Dynamics of ordering, disordering, growth, phase transitions - time evolution Complications and other aspects of LEED: 1. Electron beam damage sensitive molecular adsorbates 2. Domain structure if two domains with different structure coexist easy to distinguish sometimes difficulties exist 3. Transfer width - the dimensions of ordered regions on the surface are limited to the transfer width.

RHEED: Refection HighEnergy Electron Diffraction

Monoenergetic electrons at high energy >10 keV are incident at grazing incidence on a crystal surface. The diffracted electrons are displayed on a phosphor screen located opposite the electron gun in the vacuum chamber. Since high energy electrons are used, in-situ studies of crystal growth during deposition can be performed.


Basic Principle of RHEED

A high energy electron beam(1030Kev) is directed at the sample surface at a low incident angle(120). The electrons are diffracted by the crystal structure of the sample being investigated Then projected on a fluroscent screen mounted opposite the electron gun.
NB: The combination of grazing incidence and strong electron-substrate interactions reduces the penetration depth of incident electrons to a few monolayer's.
Fig:-Electrons hit the surface at different grazing angle

Instrumentation of RHEED
A sample holder with the prepared sample. An electron gun-The electron gun generates a beam of electrons which strike the sample at a very small angle. Photo-luminescent detector screen- which collect the diffracted electrons & form the regular pattern on the screen. although modern RHEED systems have some additional parts to optimize the technique.
Figure:- The most basic setup of a RHEED system.

Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED).

sensitive to surface changes, either due to structural changes or due to adsorption. 1. to calibrate growth rates, 2. observe removal of oxides from the surface, 3. calibrate the substrate temperature, 4. monitor the arrangement of the surface atoms, 5. determine the proper arsenic overpressure, 6. give feedback on surface morphology, 7. provide information about growth kinetics A high energy beam (3-100 keV) is directed at the sample surface at a grazing angle. - distance between the streaks - surface lattice unit cell size. - atomically flat surface - sharp RHEED patterns. - rougher surface - diffused RHEED pattern. layer-by-layer growth mode - RHEED oscillations.

RHEED is sensitive for surface structures and reconstructions.

a) GaAs(100) - 1x1

b) GaAs(100) - 2x1

electron beam is incident in the (110) with 8.6 keV

Different stages of layer-by-layer growth by nucleation of 2D islands and the corresponding intensity of the diffracted RHEED beam.

(a) Transmission through high and wide crystal; (b) Transmission through high and narrow crystal; (c) Transmission through short and wide crystal; (d) Diffraction from nearly flat asperities.

RHEED intensity oscillations:

- direct measure of growth rates in MBE. - oscillation frequency corresponds to the monolayer growth rate. - incident angle dependence of the oscillations suggest that interference between electrons scattering from the underlying layer and the partially grown layer contribute to these oscillations. - magnitude of the RHEED oscillations damps because as the growth progresses, islands nucleate before the previous layer is finished.


In LEED low energy electrons provide large elastic scattering cross-section for back-scattered electrons with short penetration depth. In RHEED high energy electrons provide large elastic scattering cross-section for forwardscattered Electrons with grazing incidence to keep short penetration depth. RHEED: theory less well developed than LEED, includes many more multiple scattering events and many more inelastic events; The quantitative RHEED usually not performed. Diffraction pattern: streaks; sensitive to roughness, surface must be very flat. LEED: theory well developed and can do quantitative analysis. Gives information not only in-plane but also out-of-plane. Diffraction pattern: spots.

Range of elements



No, except in special cases of electron-beam damage. 4-20. 0.1ML; atomic positions to 0.1 . Typically 200; best systems 5mm Typically 0.1mm; best systems ~10mm.

Same as LEED.

Depth probed Detection limits Resolving power Lateral resolution

2-100 . Same as LEED. Same as LEED. 200mm x 4mm; best systems 0.3nm x 6 nm.

Imaging capability
Main uses

No; need special instruments LEEM.

Analysis of surface crystallography .

Monitoring surface structure, in-situ growth .

Thank You!