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Ch 11 Mr.

Sopke N-XgI Europe has a very complex and diverse history.

Civilizations as we know it started about 2,500 years ago with the Greeks and Romans
 We can still see the influence of these CLASSICAL

cultures in many of the way we live our modern lives.

The people of Greece are inseparably connected to the land. The land helped form their cultures i.e. fishing, mountains

Ancient Greece was broken into CITY-STATES (countries the size of cities)  Even though these city-states were separate they share the same language and much ( NOT ALL) of the same culture and did have some unity against foreign threats 





Alexander the Great of Macedonia Conquered most of Greece in the 300 BCs

Led to a Decline of Individual City States

About 130BC Romans Conquered most of Greece by JULIUS CEASER

Rome unlike Greece began as a monarchy but changed to a REPUBLIC around 509BC

Rome was led by two CONSULS (like two presidents with 1 year terms) who were elected by the citizens and were advised by the Senators and Assembly (rich guys) who had this position for life Was the first to really emphasis citizen rights which were written on the TWELVE TABLES (tablets) which still shadows our own Bill of Rights v=oPf27gAup9U

The First EMPEROR (allpowerful ruler) was Augustus Cesar who ruled from 63 BC-14AD

Basically he took power of the Consuls after killing all his competitors. During his reign Rome reached its ZENITH (Highest Point) and started the Roman Empire which is known as the PAX ROMANA PERIOD

Christ was CRUCIFIED (Roman Tradition) by Pontius Pilot (Roman Governor) under Ceaser Augustus in about 32AD In the first century AD Apostles Peter and Paul brought the faith to Rome.
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Talked about in the Biblical book of Romans written by Paul In 64 AD both Peter and Paul were MARTYRED by the religious persecution of NERO Caesar
 The faith continued to grow after their death.

In 312 AD Christianity became the official church of Rome.
 It is said that Constantine, on his march to Rome, saw a luminous cross in the sky, in the shape and with the motto here given. In the night before the battle of Saxa Rubra a vision appeared to him in his sleep, commanding him to inscribe the cross and the motto on the shields of his soldiers. He obeyed the voice of

the vision, and prevailed.

By the late 300s Rome was fractured into sects. In about 395AD the Empire was split in two.
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After years of decline the Western (ROME) empire was sacked by Germanic Leaders in 476 AD The Eastern Empire lasted till the mid-1500s to the Ottomans (present day Turks) h?v=3PszVWZNWVA

After Rome’s Fall Europe entered into a 1000 year period known as the MIDDLE AGES

During this time life was heavily influenced by the Church and the Pope which was considered chosen by God.

About 800AD a Germanic King named Charlemagne united much of western Europe. After his death the united territory fractured and there was many problems. To fix these problems the LORDS created a system known as feudalism Feudalism was a set of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries, which, broadly defined, was a system for structuring society around relationships derived from the holding of land in exchange for service or labour. QV7CanyzhZg

The Crusades: 1096 to 1289  Beginning in 1096, some Christian Europeans heeded the call of the papacy to launch a series of “holy wars” aimed at gaining control of Jerusalem from the Muslim Arabs and Seljuk Turks. In all, eight crusades were carried out. Jerusalem fell to the Christians in 1099, partly due to the disarray among Muslims. It took Muslims nearly half a century to respond effectively with their own call for defensive jihad, which required fighting against the Crusaders. Under the leadership of Salah alDin, the Muslims effectively ended the Christian hold on the Holy Land in 1187, shortly after which Jerusalem was restored to Muslim control. It would be another 100 years, however, before the last Christian strongholds (Tripoli and Acre) fell to the Muslims. In general, the Muslims considered the Crusades to be an invasion by European outsiders, and history indicates that the Europeans treated Muslims and Jews much more harshly in comparison to Muslim treatment of Christians. The Christian sacking of Jerusalem and the massacre of its Muslim and Jewish residents during the first Crusade are often remembered as tragic historical examples of religious intolerance. 

RENAISSANCE (NEW BIRTH) The Renaissance is one of the most interesting and disputed periods of European history. Many scholars see it as a unique time with characteristics all its own. A second group views the Renaissance as the first two to three centuries of a larger era in European history usually called early modern Europe, which began in the late fifteenth century and ended on the eve of the French Revolution (1789) or with the close of the Napoleonic era (1815). Some social historians reject the concept of the Renaissance altogether. Historians also argue over how much the Renaissance differed from the Middle Ages and whether it was the beginning of the modern world, however defined. ba_ZcoR0

The Protestant Reformation was the 16thcentury schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. It was sparked by the 1517 posting of Luther's Ninety-Five Theses. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to ("protested") the doctrines, rituals, and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led to the creation of new national Protestant churches. The Reformation was precipitated by earlier events within Europe, such as the Black Death and the Western Schism, which eroded people's faith in the Catholic Church and the Papacy that governed it. This, as well as many other factors, such as the mid 15thcentury invention of the printing press, and the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire, contributed to the creation of Protestantism.

The Age of Enlightenment (or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason) was a cultural movement of intellectuals in the 18th century, first in Europe and later in the American colonies. Its purpose was to reform society using reason (rather than tradition, faith and revelation) and advance knowledge through science. It promoted science and intellectual interchange and opposed superstition, intolerance and some abuses by church and state.

After WW1 in 1919 many of the old monarchies fell and democracy and communism rose. Cold War was from 1945-1992 between USA and USSR. Which was fought through PROXY WARS. Europe was cut in to East and West. The east was under the Iron Curtain atch?v=y9HjvHZfCUI

The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states which are located primarily in Europe.[] Its de facto capital is Brussels, the capital of Belgium.[12] The EU operates through a system of supranational independent institutions and intergovernmental Important institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, and the European Central Bank. The European Parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens.

Europe has a low FERTILITY RATE (birth rate) by 2050 there is expected be a decrease in population by 10% which means less workers for the economy and more senior citizens as the LIFE-EXPECTANCY increases.

Of the total population of Europe of some 730 million (as of 2005), over 80% or some 600 million fall within three large branches of Indo-European languages, viz., Slavic, Latin (Romance) and Germanic. The largest groups that do not fall within either of these, or the so-called separate groups, are the Greeks and Armenians (about 12 million each) and the Albanians (about 8 million). Beside the IndoEuropean languages there are two other major language families on the European continent: Turkic languages and Uralic languages. The Semitic languages that dominate the coast of the northern Africa as well as the Near East are preserved on the Malta islands, a Mediterranean archipelago. The Basque language is a linguistic isolate unrelated to any other languages inside or outside of Europe.

The ethnic groups in Europe are the various ethnic groups that reside in the nations of Europe. European ethnology is the field of anthropology focusing on Europe. Pan and Pfeil (2004) count 87 distinct "peoples of Europe", of which 33 form the majority population in at least one sovereign state, while the remaining 54 constitute ethnic minorities. The total number of national minority populations in Europe is estimated at 105 million people, or 14% of 770 million Europeans

Europe is has a high URBANIZATION rate (people that live in cities). 75% of Europeans live in cities. Has a very high LITERACY RATE and over 75% complete high school
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This makes the economy stronger. Many eastern countries still struggle after the fall of communism

Travelling in Europe is easy and cheap
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Railways Inter-country Driving Flying

Due to higher incomes Europeans leisure time is about what it is in America

A good percentage of Europe are SECULAR or ATHIEST


National Gallery-London

Hermitage- St. Petersburg

Vatican Museum- Vatican Museum