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Laser Types

According to the wavelength: infra-red, visible, ultra-violet (UV) or x-ray lasers.

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Types of Laser Based on the mode of operation (i) Pulsed Laser systems (ii) Q-switched systems (iii) Continuous wave Laser systems Based on the mechanism in which Population Inversion is achieved (i) Three level lasers (ii) Four level lasers Based on state of active medium used (i) Gas Laser: He-Ne, Argon ion and CO2 (ii) Solid state Laser : Ruby, Nd:YAG, Nd:glass (iii) Semiconductor Laser
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(iv) Tunable dye Laser

Laser Types

According to the nature of pumping. flash type, chemical pumping & electric discharge lasers

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s.no Name of laser 1

wavelenght

Active Nature ofSpectral medium o/p region solid pulsed visible

Ruby laser 6943 Å

2

CO2 laser

10.6 μm gas

Contin- Infra red ous pulsed visible

3

He-Ne laser 6328 Å

gas

4

Nd : YAG laser
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1.06 μm solid

pulsed
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Infra red

Continuous vs Pulsed Lasers
Pump Source : Excitation of the lasing atoms or molecules by an external source of light (such as a lamp) or another laser The output of the laser light can be a continuous wave (cw) if the pumping is continuous or pulsed if the pumping is pulsed. Pulsed lasers have very high peak intensities because the laser intensity is concentrated in a very short time duration.
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Solid-state Laser

Example: Ruby Laser Operation wavelength: 694.3 nm (IR)

3 level system: absorbs •Gain Medium: crystal of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) green/blue with small part of atoms of aluminum is replaced with Cr3+ ions. •Pump source: flash lamp •The ends of ruby rod serve as laser mirrors.

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How a laser works?

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RUBY LASER

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1. High-voltage electricity causes the quartz flash tube to emit an intense burst of light, exciting some of Cr3+ in the ruby crystal to higher energy levels.

2. At a specific energy level, some Cr3+ emit photons. At first the photons are emitted in all directions. Photons from one Cr3+ stimulate emission of photons from other Cr3+ and the light intensity is rapidly amplified.
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3. Mirrors at each end reflect the photons back and forth, continuing this process of stimulated emission and amplification.

4. The photons leave through the partially silvered mirror at one end. This is laser light.

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As the flash lamp stop operating, the population of the upper level decreases very rapidlly & lasing action stops till the further operation of next flash. As the production of laser beam depends upon the operation of flash lamp the ruby laser is pulsed type laser.

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During the period of operation of two flash laser output is oscillating & output is highly irregular function of time, shows random fluctuations in the amplitude. This type of output is called as laser SPIKING.

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He-Ne LASER

A helium-neon laser, usually called a HeNe laser, is a type of small gas laser. HeNe lasers have many industrial and scientific uses, and are often used in laboratory demonstrations of optics. Its usual operation wavelength is 632.8 nm, in the red portion of the visible spectrum

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He-Ne laser
He-Ne lasers are normally small, with cavity lengths of around 15 cm up to 0.5 m.
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The optical cavity of the laser typically consists of a plane, high-reflecting mirror at one end of the laser tube, and a concave output coupler mirror of approximately 1% transmission at the other end.
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Electric discharge pumping is used.
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Optical output powers 12/11/12 ranging from 1 mW to
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Electron impact
Sp on ta ne ou s

Radiation less decay

em iss

io

n

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CARBON DIOXIDE
Carbon dioxide lasers are the highest-power continuous wave lasers that are currently available. They are also quite efficient: the ratio of output power to pump power can be as large as 20%. The CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers.

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Semiconducto r laser
Lasers which use semiconductor as active medium. The majority of semiconductor materials are based on a combination of elements in the third group of the Periodic Table (such as Al, Ga, In) and the fifth group (such as N, P, As, Sb) hence referred to as the III-V compounds.

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P- and N-type Semiconductors

In the compound GaAs, each gallium atom has three electrons in its outermost shell of electrons and each arsenic atom has five. When a trace of an impurity element with two outer electrons, such as zinc, is added to the crystal. The result is the shortage of one electron from one of the pairs, causing an imbalance in which there is a “hole” for an electron but there is no electron available. This forms a p-type semiconductor. When a trace of an impurity element with six outer electrons, such as selenium, is added to a crystal of GaAs, it provides on additional electron which is not needed for the bonding. This electron can be free to move through the crystal. Thus, it provides a mechanism for electrical conductivity. This type is called an n-type semiconductor. 2020

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Under forward bias (the p-type side is made positive) the majority carriers, electrons in the n-side, holes in the pside, are injected across the depletion region in both directions to create a population inversion in a narrow active region. The light produced by radioactive recombination across the band gap is confined in this active region
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Components of LASER
1. 2. 3.

PUMP.

A pump is basic energy source for a laser. It gives energy to various atoms of laser medium & excites them . So that population inversion can take place & it is maintained with time. The excitation of atomoccur directly or through atom When energy is given to laser medium a or atom collision. medium shows lasing small fraction of action. various of laser medium is called It is an set up used to obtain amplification of depending upon There is This parttype of pump stimulated Active centers. For photons, bynature of medium examples in ruby laser oscillating them back & forth between two Cr+++ is active extreme limits. Consist of: center, in He-Ne laser Ne are active centers. 1. Two plane or concave mirrors placed co-axially.

ACTIVE MEDIUM.

OPTICAL RESONATOR.

2.

One mirror is reflecting & other is partially reflecting.

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