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• Motivation is an internal state that activates, guides and sustains behavior
So the key words are… ▫ Activate: start or put into action ▫ Guide: direct or show ▫ Sustain: maintain or prolong

• Motivation refers to a presumed internal state that causes an organism to move toward some goal.

Motivation Process
An understanding of motivational process is necessary in order to comprehend why people behave as they do .

Motivation process comprises six steps: 1. Identification of needs:
▫ Needs are felt deprivation which an individual experiences at a given time. They may be psychological ( internal, emotional), physiological ( food, shelter and clothing) and social


Search for ways to satisfy needs
These deprivations force the individuals to search for ways to reduce them. A goal is a specific result that the individuals want to achieve An act is performed to overcome the tension/stress They are the signals that needs and behaviors are appropriate or not

3. Engagement in goal directed behavior
▫ ▫ ▫

4. Perform

5. Receives either reward or punishment
6. Reassessment of need’s deficiencies

Intrinsic Motivation
• Definition: Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. • An intrinsically motivated person will work on a math equation, for example, because it is enjoyable. • An intrinsically motivated student, for example, may want to get a good grade on an assignment, but if the assignment does not interest that student, the possibility of a good grade is not enough to maintain that student's motivation to put any effort into the project.

Extrinsic Motivation
• Definition: Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. • An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward. • For example, an extrinsically motivated person who dislikes math may work hard on a math equation because want the reward for completing it. In the case of a student, the reward would be a good grade on an assignment or in the class.

Expectancy theory by Victor Vroom
• The theory argues that the strength of an individual to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual • To make this simple, expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance will lead to promotion and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward.

Therefore Motivation = Valence x Expectancy Valance: value the individual personally places on the rewards ( the value of A grade in class versus C grade) Expectancy: belief that one's effort will lead to the desired performance ( example if I work harder than everyone else, will I get a better grade)

Maslow’smost theories of human motivation had focused on basic hierarchy of needs • He argued that
physiological needs • When one level is full filled only then an individual moves on to another level
Self Actualization Acceptance of facts, Peak performance Esteem Confidence, respect from others Social Friendship, family and intimacy Safety needs Security of family, health and property Physiological needs Breathing, Food, Shelter and Clothing

Goal setting theory
• This theory underlines the fact that the difficulty of the goal and clarity of the goal will affect how hard people will work towards that goal • The theory says that that when employees worked towards a goal, it results in a major source of motivation within the employees to actually reach the goal. • As a result, the final performance of the employee improves. • According to this study, specific and difficult goals lead to better results and performance as compared to vague, randomly set or easy to do goals

Demotivating factors
• • • • • • • • Unfair criticism Negative Criticism Public Humiliation Rewarding the non performers Failure or fear of failure Unfair treatment Responsibility without authority Poor standards

Importance and benefits of Motivation
• Motivated people are always looking for better ways to do task. • Motivated people are more quality oriented. • Highly motivated people are more productive. • Any technology needs motivated people to adapt it successfully.

How to Identify Motivation
▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Energy Commitment Staying Power Skill Single mindedness Enjoyment Responsibility

Peak Performers
• Lead a well-rounded life • Select a Career they Care about • Rehearse each challenging Task Mentally • Seek Result • Are willing to take risks • Not dependant on anyone else • Don’t underestimate their Potential • Compete with their self not with others • Know their field • Ability to get things done