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SUPERVISOR:K. MANJUNATH Assistant Prof., Depar tment Of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological Univer sity

TEAM MEMBERS:Aman Kumar(2K10/ME/019) Ankit Gupta(2K10/ME/027) Ankit Himmatramka(2K10/ME/028) Anurag(2K10/ME/033)


PURPOSES OF REFRIGERATION: To reduce the temperature of substance.  To transform a substance from one state to another.  To maintain substance at desired state.

 The evaporator is one of the four basic and necessary hardware components of the refrigeration/AC system .  It is basically a heat exchanger.  In the evaporator, the refrigerant is evaporated by the heat transferred from the heat source .  The heat source may be a gas or a liquid .  Used in : Refrigerators, Air-Conditioners, Cold Storage, Industrial Waste Disposal etc.


T YPES OF EVAPORATOR  Domestic Refrigerator/Industrial Refrigerator  Window AC/Split AC  Natural and Forced Convection Type  Refrigerant Flow Inside or Outside Tubes  Flooded and Dry Type Shell-and-Tube Evaporator Shell-and-Coil Evaporator Double pipe type Evaporator Baudelot type Evaporator Direct expansion fin -and-tube Evaporator Plate Surface Evaporator       .


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Topic Literature Review Future Scope Problem Formulation-Entropy Generation Minimization Analytical Calculations Software Simulation-MATLAB Thermal Design Analysis Genetic Algorithm .

LITERATURE REVIEW Review of research papers and journals .

and are limited by heat and mass transfer and fluid flow irreversibilities. Fluid Mechanics. .1975  Book – “ENTROPY GENERATION MINIMIZATION”(1995)  Book . Thermodynamics to modeling and optimization of real systems and processes that are governed by finite size and finite time constraints.“THE METHOD OF THERMODYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION OF FINITE-SIZE SYSTEM AND FINITE-TIME PROCESSES”(1995)  EGM combines the basic principles of Heat Transfer.ENTROPY GENERATION MINIMISATION(EGM)  ADRIAN BEJAN.

 A component associated with a higher propor tion of exergy destruction may more dramatically contribute to improve energy ef ficiency. T Z O N G . and to identify the potential for each component to contribute to improve the overall energy ef ficiency of the system .S H IN G LEE ( 2 01 0 ) .This work applies the second -law analysis of thermodynamics to quantify the exergy destruction of the components of screw liquid chiller.  Second-law analysis is demonstrated to be a feasible and ef fective means in improving the energy ef ficiency of a screw liquid chiller.


JA D E R R . BARBOSA JR. ( 2 01 2 ) . P U S S OL I . B RU N O F.  The heat exchanger ef fectiveness is not a suitable per formance parameter to evaluate the heat exchanger per formance because it increases monotonically with the NTU and does not take into account the fluid pumping power through the heat exchanger.An extensive EGM -based optimization analysis of the peripheral finned -tube extended sur face geometr y has been conducted in this paper  There is an optimum NTU associated with a minimum entropy generation number for both types of heat transfer boundar y condition.


LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS First law of thermodynamics Based on energy conservation Energy can neither be produced nor destroyed.” Kelvin-Planck statement of second law of thermodynamics : “It is impossible for a device operating in a cycle to produce net work while exchanging heat with bodies at single fixed temperature”. Second law of thermodynamics Clausius statement of second law of thermodynamics: “It is impossible to have a device that while operating in a cycle produces no ef fect other than transfer of heat from a body at low temperature to a body at higher temperature.     . it can only change it‟s form. .aos.

R .01 mm tube are about 3 times higher than those in the 4.Fundamental data on two-phase flow boiling pressure drop are essential for the design and operation of heat exchangers. S h i f e r aw.26 mm tube. Y. T i a n a n d D . G . The experimental pressure drop results of these study show that the pressure drop along the test section increases with mass flux and exit quality but decreases with system pressure. D. K a r ay i a n ni s . Ke n n i n g (2008) . S . Huo. X. The pressure drop gradients in 2. B . T.

E.Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporator of refrigerating system The expression derived can be used for. Granr yd ( 2 01 0 ) .  Design purposes  Checking suitable flow velocities in existing plants.  Incorporating in algorithms for optimal operation of systems with variable speed compressors.

S. heat flux.Experimental investigation on 2 phase flow heat transfer of 5 refrigerants in horizontal small tubes of various inner diameter The ef fects of mass flux.Il C h o i . Pe g a H r n j a k ( 2 01 1 ) . K w a n g . saturation temperature and inner tube diameter on the heat transfer coef ficient are reported. Pamitran. J o n g -Ta e k O h . A .

Air. R290 (propane).14.13. CO2. R134a.1 2. R22.  Liquid/gas used in evaporator tubes. Azetropes. Ammonia. NO2 etc. SO2. R410A . Water Vapor. and R32 etc.etc.  High latent heat of vaporization.  Source of cooling the gas (refrigerant) or air (air conditioning).REFRIGERANT  Any substance capable of absorbing heat from another substance. R600a (isobutane). Freon(fluorinated hydrocarbons) family like Freon -11 . . Ethylene. Ethane.

Kaufman. developed to assist a design engineer in optimizing finned -tube evaporator s. Piotr A .An Optimized Design of Finned-Tube Evaporators Using the Learnable Evolution Model  We described an experimental system. Specifically. Ryszard S. Generated designs are evaluated using the EVAP evaporator model. The novelty of this approach is in applying the recently developed learnable evolution model. which integrates knowledge-based evolutionar y computation with symbolic learning that guides the process of generating new designs. given input parameter s and technical constraints. D o m a n s ki . D av i d Ya s h a r. which simulates the designs. ISHED1 . the system optimizes the refrigerant circuitr y in the evaporator. Michalski (2004) . Ke n n et h A .

Yashar. Kaufman and Michalski (2004) .A FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECHTURE OF ISHED1 Domanski.

R410A . and analyzes the impact of evaporator ef fects on the system coef ficient of per formance(COP).  The high-pressure refrigerants provided higher evaporator capacities than the low -pressure refrigerants.  better COP for low -pressure refrigerants (having a high critical temperature) ver sus high-pressure refrigerants (having a low critical temperature ). D o m a n s ki . R290 (propane). M i n s u ng K i m (2005) . R22. Piotr A . D av i d Ya s h a r. and per formed simulations of the optimized evaporators. R134a.This paper presents a comparable evaluation of R600a (isobutane).  They optimized evaporator circuitr y for each refrigerant using a non-Dar winian evolutionar y scheme. and R32 in an optimized finned tube evaporator.

Yashar and Kim (2005) .Comparison of COP of various Refrigerants With R22 Domanski.

5 mm and 1 . Selected parameter s are the number of gaps . the lateral gap size. Ta ew o n S e o and Jongwon Kim ( 2 0 07 ) . respectively. The maximized heat transfer coef ficients are 0.This paper presents an optimal design of a micro evaporator to maximize the heat transfer coef ficient for an active micro cooler  They designed optimal parameters to maximize the heat transfer coef ficient. the channel width. Daesik Oh. Ta i j o n g S u n g .  The optimal parameter set is determined as 3.457 and 0.430 W/cm 2 K for the heater powers of 40. 0. 60 and 80 W.465. 0.25 mm respectively.

1TR) with and without heat exchanger(IHE). COP is found to drop with(6.86%) and R407C(6.26%) and without(6. When retrofitting R22 with R407C. R V i j aya n a n d P S S S r i n i va s a n (2009) .This paper presents experimental per formance analysis of a window air conditioner(capacity.  Use of IHC has increased coef ficient of per formance(COP) when running on R22(5.64%) IHE. along with per formance comparison of R22 and R407C in the same AC.3%).

H e e L e e .H un H a m .  The defrosting heater power of tri -tube type evaporator is decreased about 50% comparing of finned tube type evaporator. S e o n g . Ta e . S e -Yo o n O h .  The overall heat transfer coef ficient of tri tube type evaporator is increased about 1 20% comparing of finned tube type evaporator.S hi k Cho ( 2 01 0 ) . Jang-Seok Lee.This paper presents experimental results of the heat transfer per formance of New Tri -tube type evaporators  The low temperature evaporator test facility was developed to closely simulate refrigerator-freezer conditions. K w a n .

This paper describes a steady state model of a multiple ef fect evaporator system for simulation and control purposes .  Steady state simulation is done successfully by using „fsolve‟ solver in MATLAB source code for three feeding sequences backward.  They concluded that mixed feed is always optimal for entire range of each parameters. P. D e e p a k Ku m ar.  The ef fect of variation of various input parameter s on steam economy is studied. a n d V. mixed and splitting. S i n g h ( 2 01 0 ) . V i v e k Ku m a r.

FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF AN EVAPORATOR Primary Factors :  Refrigerant used  Air Flow Distribution  Turbulence  Area in contact with refrigerant  Conduction Path Resistance and Piping Geometry  Refrigerant Pressure Drop and Superheating Value .

R410A .  Having favourable thermodynamic proper ties. R744 etc. ef ficiency of a multi-circuit evaporator decreased by 7. ecofriendly). The decrease in per formance can be attributed to decreased heat transfer in case of non -uniform distribution of air flow. Air Flow Distribution The air flow distribution should be uniform for maximum ef ficiency. Liu & Chen (201 2) found that for equal flow rates. CFC. R22. . nonflammable. Freons.  Non-corrosive.REFRIGERANT & AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION Refrigerant Used It should be.  Safe (nontoxic.  Examples – Ammonia.78% in case of non -uniform distribution of air flow as compared to uniform one.

To minimise turbulence. Large contact area allows more heat transfer per unit time for a given temperature dif ference between the evaporator coils and refrigerant.) and maintain system stability.TURBULENCE & SURFACE AREA Turbulence Turbulence in evaporator should be minimised to prevent unwanted losses (in vibration etc. Area in contact with refrigerant Area in contact with refrigerant vapour should be large. . harsh angles or rough surfaces in coils should be avoided as they disrupt the normal flow pattern.

2004).PATH RESISTANCE & PRESSURE DROP Conduction Path Resistance Conduction path resistance should be low. they should be accordingly varied to get lowest resistance. par t parallel. So. flow is par t counter. per formance of parallel flow evaporator is more than the counter flow arrangement. .  With Superheating. flow is purely parallel.  Without Superheating. So. the per formances of above mentioned coil arrangements depend on predominant manner of flow. So. Overall resistance of conduction path depends on thermal resistance of material used and the width & length of the conducting channel. Pressure drop and Superheating value In case of refrigerant pressure drop along coil length (Hermes.

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED Major problems in the working of an evaporator :  Frost Formation  Fouling and unpleasant odour  Corrosion and leakage  Dirt accumulation  Foaming .

( FROST FORMATION . the water can freeze and begin to coat the blades. and generally hover right around the freezing point of water.howstuffworks. This is typically caused by blocked coils or failed expansion valves. and the frost layers can seriously inhibit the performance of the air conditioning system. If moisture stays on the fins too long.The evaporator coils tend to be naturally cold.

proteins and polysaccharides can create such deposits that reduce the efficiency of heat transfer. The fouling material can consist of either living organisms or a non-living substance (inorganic or organic ). and sometimes the fins are coated with a moldicide protectant.  Foods. (Gerlach and Newell.  Air conditioning systems are flushed to remove these odours.  Due to fouling there is a build-up of mold and bacteria on the evaporator fins which produce foul odour. 2001) FOULING AND PECULIAR ODOUR . Fouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on solid surfaces to the detriment of function.

 Excessive corrosion can lead to leakage of the refrigerant from the evaporator coil. CORROSION AND LEAKAGE Brass tube with corrosion traces in it (wikipedia. The surface damage caused can shorten the long-life of evaporators. thus hampering its operation and performance because of loss of heat circulation. Corrosion can occur when acidic solutions such as citrus juices are concentrated. 2000) .org). Su & Wang. (Shen.

2010) DIRT ACCUMULATION AND FOAMING . dirt and lint. Antifoam agents are to be used. (Byuan and Lee. In the normal process of operation. but they can still stop the evaporator from performing correctly and inhibit the ef ficiency of the entire system. These layers of dirt are not as dangerous as frost. which is often attracted by water. the evaporator coil and fins can become coated with normal dust.  Foaming can also create a problem since dealing with the excess foam can be costly in terms of time and ef ficiency. but only a few can be used when food is being processed.

STILL THERE IS A SCOPE TO OPTIMIZE AN EVAPORATOR ON THE BASIS OF SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS . ef forts to lessen them can be made.  The pressure drop between refrigerant and air/gas is two phase pressure drop.  Refrigerant undergoes phase change with dif ferent flow patterns.  Exergy analysis can be further carried out to optimize the performance parameters.The following conclusions can be drawn from literature review :  The heat transfer between refrigerant and air/gas is two phase heat transfer.  Common problems in evaporator operation have been identified and thus.  Performance parameters can be optimized using Entropy Generation Minimization (EGM) Technique.


 Exergy or entropy generation analysis provides easier way for optimizing the geometric and operating parameters. .FUTURE SCOPE  The first law analysis does not consider the irreversibilities occurring in the system which may lead to poorer thermal design of evaporators. By the entropy generation analysis of thermal system. we will obtain the geometric and operating parameters which improve the performance of thermal systems and reduce operating cost.  By using second law analysis we will be able to analyse the irreversibilities taking place in the system easily.

CONCLUSION  In this project. initially we have worked to choose the area of field. we carried out literature survey and came to know some of scope for further work .  Based on the conclusions of literature survey. topic of project work and method of analysis . we have defined the problem and started working on it .  As a part of the initial step. . work that we will be carrying out is problem formation and simulation .  After doing parametric study of the system we will taking up the optimization procedure.  In the future.

99. Jader R. A . International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 55 (2012) 7838–7846. and V. Domestic Use of Energy Conference 2006.  Deepak Kumar. . Barbosa Jr (2012) „Optimization of peripheral finned -tube evaporators using entropy generation minimization‟. CRC Press.374–380.  CE Vincent and MK Heun (2006) „Thermoeconomic Analysis & Design of Domestic Refrigeration Systems ‟. pp.REFERENCES  Bejan. Singh(2010) „To Study the Parametric Ef fects on Optimality of Various Feeding Sequences of a Multief fect Evaporators in Paper Industr y using Mathematical Modeling and Simulation with MATLAB‟. Boca Raton. (1995) Entropy Generation Minimization . Journal Heat Transfer . Vivek Kumar. NY. (1977) „The concept of irreversibility in heat exchanger design: counter flow heat exchanger s for gas-to-gas applications‟.  Bejan A . Vol.  Bruno F. P. Pussoli. International Journal of Chemical and Biological Engineering 3:3 2010.

 Jang-Se Jang-Seok Lee. VOLUME 10. Granryd(2010) „Analytical expressions for optimum flow rates in evaporators and condensers of heat pumping systems‟.  S.  R Vijayan and P S S Srinivasan (2009) „The influence of internal heat exchanger on performance of window AC retrofitted with R407C‟.C. Kaushik and K. Domanski. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference(2000). Int.5. „An Optimized Design of Finned-Tube Evaporators Using the Learnable Evolution Model‟. E. David Yashar. Seong-Hun Ham. Exergy. A.S. Pamitran. Pega Hrnjak (2011) „Experimental investigation on two-phase flow boiling heat transfer of five refrigerants in horizontal small tubes of 0. .5 and 3. Se-Yoon Oh.0 mm inner diameters‟. J.  Piotr A. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 54 (2011) 2080–2088. Manjunath (2011) „Second law analysis of condenser by using new heat transfer and pressure drop model based on flow regimes‟. Kwan-Shik Cho(2000) „A STUDY ON NEW TRI-TUBE TYPE EVAPORATORS IN DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR/FREEZER. 2009. Kwang-Il Choi. Vol.2010. 9. international journal on refrigeration 33. 2011. 1.  Jong-Taek Oh. No. NUMBER 2 HVAC&R RESEARCH APRIL 2005. Minsung Kim (2005). Tae-Hee Lee. 3.

. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference.R Kennin (2008) „BOILING TWO-PHASE PRESSURE DROP IN SMALL DIAMETER TUBES‟. Daesik . T. Z. sciencedirect. Marco E.B.  Christian J. Shen.  B. Tian and D. Asian Symposium for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology 2007.2008.  Douglas T. Taewon Seo and Jongwon Kim (2007) „Optimal design of a micro evaporator to maximize heat transfer coefficient‟. Shiferaw. UK. Claudio Melo and Joaquim M. Goncalves (2004) „Effect of coil Geometry on Frost-Free-Finned-Tube Evaporator Performance‟. International Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Conference. Xiaoyu Liu. Dong Huang. published in ASRAE Journal  Xinzhou Shu and Y. Berkshire.  Websites used – google.S. howstuffworks. Wang (2000) „Research on characteristics of Double Evaporators in VRV Air Conditioner‟. D. Jekel (2009) „Frost on Air Cooling Evaporators‟. Reindl and Todd B. Qun Chen (2012) „Effect of non-uniform air velocity distribution on evaporator performance and its improvement on a residential air conditioner‟.  X.L. Y. Taijong Sung. Aspen Tech Inc. wikipedia. Marques. Karayiannis. published by Elsevier Ltd. Hermes.