STATISTIK DASAR

ISI:
Tipe data  Konsep statistik deskriptif  Pembuatan grafik statistik

Basic Business Statistics
Presenting Data in Tables and Charts

2

Chapter Topics

Organizing numerical data

The ordered array and stem-leaf display

Tabulating and graphing Univariate numerical data

Frequency distributions: tables, histograms, polygons Cumulative distributions: tables, the Ogive
3

Graphing Bivariate numerical data

Chapter Topics

Tabulating and graphing Univariate categorical data
 

(continued )

The summary table Bar and pie charts, the Pareto diagram

Tabulating and graphing Bivariate categorical data
 

Contingency tables Side by side bar charts
4

Graphical excellence and common

Organizing Numerical Data
Numerical Data
41, 24, 32, 26, 27, 27, 30, 24, 38, 21

Ordered Array
21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Histograms Tables Ogive Polygons
5

Stem and Leaf Display

2 144677 3 028 4 1

Organizing Numerical Data (continued)
 

Data in raw form (as collected): 24, 26, 24, 21, 27, 27, 30, 41, 32, 38 Data in ordered array from smallest to largest: 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41 Stem-and-leaf display: 2 144677
3 028 4 1

6

Tabulating and Graphing Numerical Data
Numerical Data
41, 24, 32, 26, 27, 27, 30, 24, 38, 21

Ordered Array
21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 38, 41

Frequency Distributions Cumulative Distributions Histograms
7 6

O give

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Stem and Leaf Display

2 144677 3 028 4 1

Ogive Polygons

Tables

5 4 3 2 1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

7

Sort raw data in ascending order:

Tabulating Numerical Data: Frequency Distributions

12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58
 

Find range: 58 - 12 = 46 Select number of classes: 5 (usually between
5 and 15)

 

Compute class interval (width): 10 (46/5 then
round up)

Determine class boundaries (limits): 10,
20, 30, 40, 50, 60
8

Frequency Distributions, Relative Frequency Distributions and Percentage Distributions Data in ordered array:
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Class
10 but under 20 20 but under 30 30 but under 40 40 but under 50 50 but under 60 Total

Relative Frequency Frequency Percentage 3 6 5 4 2 20 .15 .30 .25 .20 .10 1 15 30 25 20 10 100
9

Graphing Numerical Data: The in ordered array: Histogram Data
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58
Histogram 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6 5 4 3 2 0 5 15 25 36 45 55 0 More

Frequency

No Gaps Between Bars

Class Boundaries

Class Midpoints

10

Graphing Numerical Data: The Frequencyarray: Polygon Data in ordered
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58
Frequenc y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 15 25 36 45 55 More
11

Class Midpoints

Tabulating Numerical Data: Cumulative Frequency Data in ordered array:
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Class 10 but under 20 20 but under 30 30 but under 40 40 but under 50 50 but under 60

Cumulative Frequency 3 9 14 18 20

Cumulative % Frequency 15 45 70 90 100
12

Graphing Numerical Data:
The Ogive (Cumulative % Data in ordered array: Polygon)
12, 13, 17, 21, 24, 24, 26, 27, 27, 30, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 43, 44, 46, 53, 58

Ogive
100 80 60 40 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Class Boundaries (Not Midpoints)
13

Graphing Bivariate Numerical Data (Scatter Plot)
Mutual Funds Scatter Plot
40 Total Year to Date Return (%) 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 Net Asset Values 40

14

Tabulating and Graphing Categorical Data:Univariate Data
Categorical Data

Tabulating Data The Summary Table

Graphing Data

Pie Charts Bar Charts Pareto Diagram
15

Summary Table
(for an Investor’s Portfolio)
Investment Category Stocks Bonds CD Savings Total
(in thousands $)

Amount 46.5 32 15.5 16 110

Percentage 42.27 29.09 14.09 14.55 100

Variables are Categorical
16

Graphing Categorical Data: Univariate Data
Categorical Data

Tabulating Data The Summary Table

Graphing Data

Pie Charts
CD S avings B onds S toc k s 0 10 20 30 40 50

Bar Charts
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

Pareto Diagram
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 S toc k s B onds S avings CD

17

Bar Chart
(for an Investor’s Portfolio)
Investor's Portfolio
Savings CD Bonds Stocks 0 10 20 30 40 50

Amount in K$
18

Pie Chart
(for an Investor’s Portfolio)
Amount Invested in K$ Savings 15% CD 14% Stocks 42%

Bonds

29%

Percentages are rounded to the nearest percent.

19

Pareto Diagram
45% 100% 90% 80% 70% 30% 60% 25% 50% 20% 40% 15% 30% 10% 20% 10% 0% Stocks Bonds Savings CD 40%

Axis for bar chart shows % invested in each category

35%

5%

0%

Axis for line graph shows cumulative % invested
20

Tabulating and Graphing Bivariate Categorical Data

of dollars Investment Investor A Category Stocks Bonds CD Savings Total 46.5 32 15.5 16 110

Contingency tables: investment in thousands
Investor B 55 44 20 28 147 Investor C 27.5 19 13.5 7 67 Total 129 95 49 51 324
21

Tabulating and Graphing Bivariate Categorical Data

Side by side charts

Comparing Investors
S avings CD B onds S toc k s 0 10 Inves tor A 20 30 Inves tor B 40 50 Inves tor C 60

22

Principles of Graphical Excellence
 

Presents data in a way that provides substance, statistics and design Communicates complex ideas with clarity, precision and efficiency Gives the largest number of ideas in the most efficient manner Almost always involves several dimensions Tells the truth about the data
23

Errors in Presenting Data
 

Using “chart junk” Failing to provide a relative basis in comparing data between groups Compressing the vertical axis Providing no zero point on the vertical axis
24

 

“Chart Junk”
Bad Presentation
Minimum Wage 1960: $1.00 1970: $1.60 1980: $3.10
0 4 2

 Good Presentation
Minimum Wage

$

1990: $3.80

1960

1970

1980

1990

25

No Relative Basis
Bad Presentation
A’s received by students. Freq. 300 200 100 0 FR SO JR SR

 Good Presentation
30 % 20 10 0 FR SO JR SR A’s received by students.

FR = Freshmen, SO = Sophomore, JR = Junior, SR = Senior
26

Compressing Vertical Axis
Bad Presentation
200 100 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

Good Presentation
50 25 0 Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4

$

Quarterly Sales

$

Quarterly Sales

27

No Zero Point on Vertical Axis
Bad Presentation
45 42 39 36 J F M A M J
0 J F M A M J
28

 Good Presentation
45 42 39 36

$

Monthly Sales

$

Monthly Sales

Graphing the first six months of sales.

Chapter Summary

Organized numerical data

The ordered array and stem-leaf display

Tabulated and graphed univariate numerical data

Frequency distributions: tables, histograms, polygon Cumulative distributions: tables and the Ogive
29

Graphed bivariate numerical data

Chapter Summary

Tabulated and graphed univariate categorical data
 

(continued )

The summary table Bar and pie charts, the Pareto diagram

Tabulated and graphed bivariate categorical data
 

Contingency tables Side by side charts

Discussed graphical excellence and common errors in presenting data
30

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