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PRESENTED BY:

POOJARY VIJAY . UNDER GUIDANCE OF: PROF. RAMACHANDRAN. TOPIC: KANDHAR HIJACK.

INTRODUCTION:
Indian Airlines Flight 814 commonly known as IC 814 was an Indian Airlines Airbus A300 en route from Tribhuvan International Airportin Kathmandu, Nepal to Indira Gandhi International Airport in Delhi, India on Friday, December 24, 1999, when it was hijacked. Harkat-ul-Mujahideen, a Pakistan-based group, was accused for the hijacking. The aircraft was hijacked by gunmen shortly after it entered Indian airspace at about 17:30 IST. After touching down in Amritsar, Lahoreand Dubai, the hijackers forced the aircraft to land in Kandahar, Afghanistan. The hijackers released 27 of 176 passengers in Dubai but fatally stabbed one and wounded several others. India's lack of recognition of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan complicated negotiations between Indian authorities and the hijackers. Taliban moved its well-armed fighters near the hijacked aircraft in an attempt to prevent Indian special forces from storming the aircraft. The hijacking lasted for seven days and ended after India released three militants Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar, Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh and Maulana Masood Azhar.

HIJACKING:
The Indian Airlines flight 814 (VT-EDW) had 178 passengers on board (most of whom were Indian nationals) that were coming to India after vacationing in Nepal.[1] was hijacked on December 24, 1999, shortly after the aircraft entered Indian airspace at about 17:30 IST.[2]The identities of the hijackers according to the Indian Government were:[3] Ibrahim Azhar, Bahawalpur, Pakistan Shahid Akhtar Sayed, Karachi, Pakistan Sunny Ahmed Qazi, Karachi, Pakistan Mistri Zahoor Ibrahim, Karachi, Pakistan Shakir, Sukkur, Pakistan Anil Sharma, the chief flight attendant on IC-814, later recalled that a masked, bespectacled man threatened to blow up the plane with a bomb and ordered Captain Devi Sharan to "fly west".[4] The hijackers wanted Captain Sharan to divert the aircraft over Lucknow and head towards Lahore. However, there was insufficient fuel. Captain Sharan told the hijackers that they had to land in Amritsar, India.[4]

Landing in Amritsar, India


At Amritsar, Captain Sharan requested refueling the aircraft. However, the Crisis Management Group in Delhi directed Amritsar Airport authorities to ensure that the plane was immobilised, which armed personnel of the Punjab police were already in position to try to do. They did not receive approval from New Delhi. Eventually, a fuel tanker was dispatched and instructed to block the approach of the aircraft. As the tanker sped towards the aircraft, air traffic control radioed the pilot to slow down, and the tanker immediately came to a stop. This sudden stop aroused the hijackers' suspicion and they forced the aircraft to take off immediately, without clearance from air traffic control. The aircraft missed the tanker by only a few feet and flew away

Landing in Lahore, Pakistan


Due to extremely low fuel level, the aircraft requested emergency landing in Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan initially denied the request fearing that their country might be linked with the terrorists. Pakistan also shut down their air traffic services, thus effectively blackening the whole of Pakistan airspace for the Indian Airlines flight and switched off all lights at Lahore Airport. With no help from ATC, Captain Sharan banked on his visual instincts and began descending on what he thought was a runway only to find out that it was a well-lit road and aborted landing the aircraft in time. On understanding that the only other option for the aircraft was to crash land, Lahore Airport switched on its lights and allowed the aircraft to land. Lahore airport officials refueled the aircraft and allowed it to leave Lahore at 22:32 IST. Pakistani officials rejected the pilot's request to offload some women and children passengers.

Landing in Dubai, UAE


The aircraft took off for Dubai where 27 passengers aboard the flight were released. The hijackers also released a critically injured 25-yearold Indian male, Rupin Katyal, who was stabbed by the hijackers multiple times. Rupin later succumbed to his injuries becoming the only casualty of the hijacking. Soon after the release of these passengers, the plane left for Kandahar International Airport.

Landing in Kandahar, Afghanistan


After the aircraft landed in Kandahar, Taliban authorities, in an attempt to gain international recognition, agreed to cooperate with Indian authorities and took the role of mediators between the hijackers and the Indian government. Since India did not recognise the Taliban regime, it dispatched an official from its High Commission in Islamabad to Kandahar.India's lack of previous contact with the Taliban regime complicated the negotiating process. However, the intention of the Taliban was under doubt after its armed fighters surrounded the aircraft. The Taliban maintained that the forces were deployed in an attempt to dissuade the hijackers from killing or injuring the hostages but some analysts believe it was done to prevent an Indian military operation against the hijackers

Negotiations
Maulana Masood Azhar founded Jaish-e-Muhammed in 2000 which gained notoriety for its alleged role in the 2001 Indian Parliament attack.[16][17] Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh arrested in 2002 by Pakistani authorities for the abduction and murder of Daniel Pearl.[18][19] Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar has played an active role since release in training Islamic militants in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.[20] Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh, who had been imprisoned in connection with the 1994 Kidnappings of Western tourists in India, went on to murder Daniel Pearl and also allegedly played a significant role in planning the September 11 attacks in the United States.[21] After the three militants landed in Kandahar, the hostages aboard the flight were freed. On December 31, 1999, the freed hostages of the Indian Airlines Flight 814 were flown back toIndia on a special plane.[citation needed] The three militants were later escorted by Taliban across Pakistani border. Pakistan denied that none of the militants are in Pakistan, but it was discovered later that all three terrorists Maulana Masood Azhar (living in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan), Ahmed Omar Saeed Sheikh (who kidnapped and killed Daniel Pearl from Lahore, Pakistan) and Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar (also living in Muzaffarabad, Pakistan) were in Pakistan.