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A marketing channel is the particular set of

interdependent organizations involved in the process

of making a product or service available for use or


A push strategy uses the manufacturers sales force, trade

promotion money, and other means to induce intermediaries to carry, promote, and sell the product to end users.
A pull strategy uses advertising, promotion, and other

forms of communication to persuade consumers to demand the product from intermediaries.

Analyze customer needs

Establish channel objectives Identify major channel alternatives Evaluate major channel alternatives

Types of intermediaries Number of intermediaries

Terms and responsibilities




Selecting channel members

Training channel members Motivating channel members

Evaluating channel members

Modifying channel members

Channel conflict occurs when one members actions

prevent another channel from achieving its goal

Types of channel conflict
Horizontal Multichannel

Goal incompatibility
Unclear roles and rights Differences in perception Intermediaries dependence on the manufacturer

Retailing includes all the activities involved in selling goods or services directly to final consumers for personal, non business use

Specialty store Department store

Discount store Off-price retailer

Convenience store

Catalog showroom

Self-selection Limited service

Full service

Direct selling

Direct marketing

Automatic vending

Buying service

New retail forms and combinations

Growth of intertype competition

Competition between store-based and non-store-based retailing Growth of giant retailers Decline of middle market retailers

Growing investment in technology

Global profile of major retailers

Rural retail has a large potential

Traditionally rural retail was done by local traders

Some companies have entered organized rural retail

Hariyali Kissan Bazaar, is a pioneer in new format rural retailing Chaupal Sagar by ITC acts as a collection centre as well as retail outlet

Wholesaling is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services
The resale (sale without transformation) of new and used goods to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional or professional users, or to other wholesalers, or involves acting as an agent or broker in buying merchandise for, or selling merchandise to, such persons or companies

Selling and promoting Buying and assortment

Transportation Financing Risk bearing Market information Management services and

Bulk breaking