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CARBOHYDRATES

Objectives:
Define and understand the characteristics of carbohydrate Compare and contrast the different types of carbohydrates Enumerate the functions of carbohydrates

Carbohydrates
These are compounds generally composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Compounds that contain large quantities of hydroxyl groups It contains either an aldehyde moiety (polyhydroxyaldehydes) or a ketone moiety (polyhydroxy ketones)

Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates, along with lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and other compounds are known as biomolecules because they are closely associated with living organisms

Carbohydrates
The most abundant organic compounds in the plant world. Has very important functions in both animals and plants Act as storehouses of chemical energy (glucose, starch, glycogen)

provide energy through oxidation

Carbohydrates

Components of supportive structures in plants (cellulose), crustacean shells (chitin) and connective tissues in animals (acidic polysaccharides)
supply carbon for the synthesis of cell components

Carbohydrates

Essential components of nucleic acid (D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose).

Carbohydrates
Also called as saccharide (from the Latin, saccharum, meaning sugar) Single units of sugar are called monosaccharide. Sugars can readily be linked together to form disaccharides (contains two sugars), oligosaccharides (contains several sugars) and polysaccharides (contains many sugars)

Types of Carbohydrates

Monosaccharide simple carbohydrate


Cannot be split or hydrolyzed into smaller carbohydrate Glucose, the most common carbohydrate, is an example

Monosaccharides

Are simple sugar with an unbranched chain of 3 to 8 carbon atoms, one of them in a carbonyl group and the rest attached to hydroxyl groups

Monosaccharides

There are two types of monosaccharide structure:


An ALDOSE the carbonyl group is on the first carbon (-CHO) A KETOSE contains the carbonyl group on the second carbon atom as a ketone (C=O)

Monosaccharides
The suffix ose indicates that the molecule is a carbohydrate The prefix tri-, tetra-, pent-, and so forth indicate the number of carbon atoms in the chain The designation aldo- and keto- are use to identify if the monosaccharide is an aldose or a ketose.

Types of Carbohydrates

Disaccharide consist of two monosaccharide units joined together


Can be split into two monosaccharides Table sugar, sucrose (C12H22O12) is an example which can be hydrolyzed to form glucose and fructose

Types of Carbohydrates

Polysaccharide
Naturally occurring polymers containing many monosaccharide units. It can be hydrolyzed to give many molecules of monosaccharide.

Role of Carbohydrates (Plants)

Carbohydrates: synthesized during the process of photosynthesis

Plants

Use them as a source of energy Store them in the cells.

Role of Carbohydrates (Animals)


Carbohydrates: consumed as sugars, starches, and fiber When complex carbohydrates are consumed, digestion breaks the bonds between the larger carbohydrate molecules so that individual simple sugars can be absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the intestines.

Role of Carbohydrates (Animals)


The bloodstream carries the simple sugars to cells throughout the body where they cross into the cells through the cell membrane. Once inside the cells, simple sugars are used as fuel in the process of cellular respiration, releasing energy which is stored as ATP.

Role of Carbohydrates (Animals)

If an organism has a greater supply of carbohydrates than needed for its energy requirements, the extra energy is converted to fats and stored by the body.

Functions of Carbohydrates

Energy Source
Glucose in cells is the primary source of energy -fuel for cellular respiration

Energy Storage (short term)


Glycogen in the liver of animals Starch in the structures of plants

Structural Support
Cellulose forms cell walls in plants Also an important source of fiber for animals to stimulate the digestive system

Occurrence
Cell walls of bacteria and plants Membranes Nucleotides sugar components Nucleic acids DNA and RNA Coenzymes

Physical Properties

Most monosaccharides have a sweet taste (fructose is sweetest; 73% sweeter than sucrose). They are solids at room temperature. They are extremely soluble in water:
Despite their high molecular weights, the presence of large numbers of OH groups make the monosaccharides much more water soluble than most molecules of similar MW.

Glucose can dissolve in minute amounts of water to make a syrup (1 g / 1 ml H O).

Amino Sugars
Amino sugars contain an NH2 group in place of an OH group. Only three amino sugars are common in nature:

D-glucosamine D-mannosamine D-galactosamine

D-glucose

Common Names
Glucose dextrose

Natural Source
Fruits, vegetables, corn syrup and honey

D-glucose

Importance
Building block for disaccharides (such as sucrose, lactose and maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose and glycogen)

Disease
Hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia

D-galactose

Natural Source
None for free form Formed by hydrolysis of milk lactose

Importance
Cellular membranes of brain and nervous system

D-galactose

Disease
Galactosemia Enzyme to digest galactose missing and levels build in blood cause mental retardation, cataracts and cirrhosis

D-fructose

Common names
Levulose Fruit sugar

Natural source
Fruit juice and honey Hydrolysis of sugar

Importance
Due to sweetness, used as sugar

Sucrose
Maple syrup contains about 65% sucrose, with glucose and fructose present as well; Caramel is the solid residue formed from heating sucrose.

Sucrose

A flavoring agent called invert sugar is produced by the hydrolysis of sucrose under acidic conditions, which breaks it apart into glucose and fructose; invert sugar is sweeter than sucrose because of the fructose.

Sucrose

Some of the sugar found in honey is formed in this fashion; invert sugar is also produced in jams and jellies prepared from acid-containing fruits.

Lactose
The principal sugar present in milk (milk sugar) Accounts for 5 to 8% of human milk and 4 to 6% of cows milk. Consists of D-galactose bonded by a -1,4-glycosidic bond to carbon 4 of Dglucose.

Lactose
It is digested by the enzyme lactase. Reducing sugar

Maltose
Derives its name from its presence in malt, the juice from sprouted barley and other cereal grains. Consists of two units of D-glucose joined by a glycosidic bond between carbon 1 (the anomeric carbon) of one unit and carbon 4 of the other unit (1,4-glycosidic bond)

Maltose
Also known as malt sugar. It is found in germinating grain (such as barley), and is formed during the hydrolysis of starch to glucose during digestion. Because it has a hemiacetal group, it is a reducing sugar.

Oligosaccharides

Oligosaccharides contain from 3 to 10 monosaccharide units.

Raffinose

An oligosaccharide found in peas and beans; largely undigested until reaching the intestinal flora in the large intestine, releasing hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane)

Polysaccharides
Polysaccharides contain hundreds or thousands of carbohydrate units. Polysaccharides are not reducing sugars, since the anomeric carbons are connected through glycosidic linkages. We will consider three kinds of polysaccharides, all of which are polymers of glucose: starch, glycogen, and cellulose.

Starch
Starch is a polymer consisting of Dglucose units. Starches (and other glucose polymers) are usually insoluble in water because of the high molecular weight, but they can form thick colloidal suspensions with water. There are two forms of starch: amylose and amylopectin.

Starch - Amylose
Amylose consists of long, unbranched chains of glucose (from 1000 to 2000 molecules) connected by (14) glycosidic linkages. 10%-20% of the starch in plants is in this form.

Starch - Amylose
Amylose forms helices (coils) which can trap molecules of iodine, forming a characteristic deep blue-purple color. (Iodine is often used as a test for the presence of starch.)

Starch - Amylopectin
Amylopectin consists of long chains of glucose (up to 105 molecules) connected by (14) glycosidic linkages, with (16) branches every 24 to 30 glucose units along the chain. 80%-90% of the starch in plants is in this form.

Glycogen

Glycogen, also known as animal starch, is structurally similar to amylopectin, containing both (14) glycosidic linkages and (16) branch points. Glycogen is even more highly branched, however, with branches occuring every 8 to 12 glucose units. Glycogen is abundant in the liver and muscles; on hydrolysis it forms glucose, which maintains normal blood sugar level and provides energy.

Cellulose

Cellulose is a polymer consisting of long, unbranched chains of D-glucose connected by (14) glycosidic linkages; it may contain from 300 to 3000 glucose units in one molecule.

Cellulose

Because of the -linkages, cellulose has a different overall shape from amylose, forming extended straight chains which hydrogen bond to each other, resulting in a very rigid structure.

Cellulose

Cellulose is an important structural polysaccharide, and is the single most abundant organic compound on earth. It is the material in plant cell walls that provides strength and rigidity; wood is 50% cellulose.

Cellulose

Most animals lack the enzymes needed to digest cellulose, although it does provide needed roughage (dietary fiber) to stimulate contraction of the intestines and thus help pass food along through the digestive system.

Cellulose

Some animals, such as cows, sheep, and horses, can process cellulose through the use of colonies of bacteria in the digestive system which are capable of breaking cellulose down to glucose; ruminants use a series of stomachs to allow cellulose a longer time to digest.

Cellulose

Some other animals such as rabbits reprocess digested food to allow more time for the breakdown of cellulose to occur.

Cellulose

Cellulose is also important industrially, from its presence in wood, paper, cotton, cellophane, rayon, linen, nitrocellulose (guncotton), photographic films (cellulose acetate), etc.