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HSDPA Fundamental

January 25th, 2011

HSDPA Principles HSDPA Channel Structure HSDPA Power Allocation Architectural Impact Summary and Conclusions Abbreviations and references

HSDPA Basics
HSDPA power TTI= 2 ms R99 traffic PDCH power CPICH and control channel power
SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16

Channelization codes allocated for HS-DSCH transmission 8 codes (example)

Key Idea in HSDPA

Fast adaptation of transmission parameters to fast variations in radio conditions

Main functionality to support HSDPA

Fast link adaptation Fast Hybrid ARQ Fast channel-dependent scheduling

Basic Features
Short TTI (2 ms)
Reduced delays
2 ms

Shared Channel Transmission

Dynamically shared code resource

Fast Channel-Dependent Scheduling

2 ms time basis

Fast Link Adaptation and higher modulation

Data rate adapted to radio conditions 2 ms time basis

Fast Hybrid ARQ

Roundtrip time ~12 ms possible Soft combination of multiple attempts

Short 2 ms TTI
2 ms

Reduced air-interface delay

Improved end-user performance Required by TCP at high data rates

Necessary to benefit from other HS-DSCH features

Fast Link Adaptation Fast hybrid ARQ Fast Channel-dependent Scheduling
Rel 5 (HS-DSCH)
2 ms

Earlier releases
10 ms 20 ms 40 ms 80 ms

Shared Channel Transmission

A set of radio resources dynamically shared among multiple users, primarily in the time domain
Efficient code utilization Efficient power utilization
SF=1 SF=2 SF=4 SF=8 SF=16

Channelization codes allocated for HS-DSCH transmission 8 codes (example)

TTI Shared channelization codes

User #1

User #2

User #3

User #4

Fast Channel-dependent Scheduling

Examples of scheduling algorithms
Round Robin (RR)
Cyclically assign the channel to users without taking channel conditions into account Simple but poor performance

Proportional Fair (PF)

Assign the channel to the user with the best relative channel quality High throughput, fair

Max C/I Ratio

Assign the channel to the user with the best channel quality High system throughput but not fair

Fast Link Adaptation and higher modulation Adjust transmission parameters to match
instantaneous channel conditions

HS DL Shared Channel: Rate control (no Fast Power control) Adaptive coding Adaptive modulation (QPSK or 16QAM) Adapt on 2 ms TTI basis fast

High data rate

R99: Power control (no Rate control constant data rate possible)

Low data rate

Higher Modulation
HS-DSCH supports both QPSK and 16QAM
16QAM is optional in RBS 16QAM is mandatory in the UE, except for the 2 lowest UE categories 16QAM gives approximately double data rates 16QAM is mainly useful at good radio conditions 16QAM typically requires more advanced receivers in the UE

2 bits

4 bits



Higher Order Modulation

Adding 64QAM on the Downlink Mbps
15 codes





2 bits/symbol

4 bits/symbol

15 codes

6 bits/symbol

10 codes

5 codes 5 codes

Chip Rate = 3.84 Mchip/s SF =16 Code =15 Bit Rate = (3.84/16)*6*15 = 21.6 Mbps


Ericsson AB 2009 | Ericsson Internal | X (X) | Date

Fast Hybrid ARQ with Soft Combining

Rapid retransmissions of erroneous data
Hybrid ARQ protocol terminated in Node B short RTT (typical example: 12 ms) Soft combining in UE of multiple transmission attempts reduced error rates for retransmissions
P1,1 Transmitter P1,2 P2,1 P2,2 P3,1

P1,1 Receiver

P1,2 + P1,1


P2,2 + P2,1


HS-DSCH Power Allocation

HS-DSCH must share the transmission power with all other channels Dynamic power allocation
Allocate remaining power to HS-DSCH transmission Best power utilization

Total available cell power


Dedicated channels (power controlled)

Common channels (not power controlled)

Architectural Impact
Fast adaptation to varying radio conditions and fast retransmissions new functionality in Node B!
New HW and SW in Node B SW upgrade in RNC
R99: scheduling, TF selection, link layer (ARQ)
HSDPA: link adaptation, scheduling, hybrid ARQ Core Network RNC

Node B

UE capabilities
HS-DSCH category Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Category 5 Category 6 Category 7 Category 8 Category 9 Category 10 Category 11 Category 12 Maximum number of HS-DSCH codes received 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 L1 peak rates (Mbps) 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.8 3.6 3.6 7.3 7.3 10.2 14.0 0.9 1.8 User data throughput P4 (Mbps) QPSK / 16 QAM

Both Both Both

P4 time frame
3.36 3.36

Both Both Both Both Both Both Both QPSK QPSK

HSDPA Channel Structure

High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel HS-DSCH High-Speed Shared Control Channel(s) HS-SCCH Associated Dedicated Channel A-DCH A-DCH


High-Speed Shared Control Channel HS-SCCH

Control signalling to mobiles scheduled in a 2 ms interval
UE identity for which the HS-SCCH is intended (and HS-DSCH) Informs the UE about:
HS-DSCH code set Modulation scheme (QPSK/16QAM) HS-DSCH transport format (number of transport blocks per TTI and number of bits per transport block) Hybrid ARQ information

One or a few HS-SCCH per cell Never in soft handover SF = 128

Associated Dedicated Channel A-DCH

One A-DCH per HSDPA enabled terminal in the cell A-DCH DL
3.4 kbps SRB (control signalling: RRC & NAS)


Can be in 384 kbps (or 64 kbps) DCH soft/softer handover 3.4 kbps SRB (control signalling: RRC & NAS) High-Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH)

ACK/NACK for H-ARQ Channel Quality Indicator (CQI) Never in soft handover (softer is possible)

The HSPA trace possibilities

Drive testing: -TEMS -Wireshark/Ethereal


External IP network External IP network



Router / Firewall Services Network (Application Server)

Passive measurements: -RBS & RNC counters

Passive measurements: -IuPS, Gn, Gi traces

Passive measurements: -Wireshark/Ethereal -Moniq

No need for new sites, no need for new spectrum/carrier No need for RBS configuration End user data rate is adapted to radio conditions We can have the same cell range as in R99 HSDPA cell border throughput better than DCH (R99) More power gives most gain in improving the coverage HSDPA gives ~3 times more downlink capacity than DCH More power gives considerable capacity improvement Substantial capacity gain when G-RAKE and Rx diversity is used in the future phases of HSDPA