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6.5 Trig.

Form of a Complex Number


2 2
b a bi a z + = + =
Ex. Z = -2 + 5i
( ) 5 , 2
2 2
5 ) 2 ( + = z
29 = z
-2
5
Trigonometric Form of a Complex Number
( ) u u sin cos i r z + =
r = the hypotenuse and theta = the angle.
Ex.
i z 3 2 2 =
Find r (the hyp) & theta
r = 4
= = =
2
3 2
.
.
tan
adj
opp
u
1
3
0
60 = u
ref. angle
= 240
3
4
or
t
u
)
3
4
sin
3
4
(cos 4
t t
i z + =
Write in trig. form
2
3 2
Write the complex number in standard form a + bi.
Ex.
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
|
.
|

\
|
=
3
sin
3
cos 8
t t
i z
(

= i z
2
3
2
1
2 2

z = 2 6i
Multiplication of Complex Numbers
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
sin cos u u u u + + + = i r r z z
Find the Product if
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
3
2
sin
3
2
cos 2
1
t t
i z &
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
6
11
sin
6
11
cos 8
2
t t
i z
=
2 1
z z
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
6
11
3
2
sin
6
11
3
2
cos 16
t t t t
i
(

+ =
2
5
sin
2
5
cos 16
t t
i | | i i 16 ) 1 ( 0 16 = + =
2
t
Dividing Complex Numbers
( ) ( ) | |
2 1 2 1
2
1
2
1
sin cos u u u u + = i
r
r
z
z
Divide
( )
o o
i z 300 sin 300 cos 24
1
+ =
( )
o o
i z 75 sin 75 cos 8
2
+ =
| | ) 75 300 sin( ) 75 300 cos(
8
24
2
1
o o o o
i
z
z
+ =
| |
o o
i 225 sin 225 cos 3 + =
(
(

|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
2
2
2
3 i
i
2
2 3
2
2 3
=
2
1
z
z
DeMoivres Theorem and n
th
Roots

z
n
= r cosu +isinu
( )
| |
n
( ) u u n i n r
n
sin cos + =
Ex. Find
12
) 3 1 ( i +
Imagine how much fun it would be to multiply this
example out 12 times. It would take forever. Using
DeMovres Theorem, however, makes it short and simple.
First, convert to trigonometric form.
= +
12
) 3 1 ( i
12
3
2
sin
3
2
cos 2
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
i
( ) ( )
(

+ =
3
2
12 sin
3
2
12 cos 2
12
t t
i
( ) t t 8 sin 8 cos 4096 i + =
( ) i 0 1 4096 + =
4096 =
nth Roots of a Complex Number
For a positive integer n, the complex number
z = r(cos x + i sin x)
has exactly n distinct nth roots given by
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
n
k
i
n
k
r
n
t u t u 2
sin
2
cos
where k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , n - 1
WATCH THE EXAMPLES
CAREFULLY!!!
Ex. Find all the sixth roots of 1.
First, write 1 + 0i in trig. form.
1 + 0i is over 1 and up 0. Therefore, 1 is the
hypotenuse and theta is 0
o
.
( )
6
1
0 1 i +

1 cos0
o
+ i sin0
o
( )
| |
1
6
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
=
6
2 0
sin
6
2 0
cos 1
6
t t k
i
k
Now, we plug in 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 for k to find
our six roots.
( ) 1 0 sin 0 cos 1 = +i
i i
2
3
2
1
3
sin
3
cos 1 + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
i i
2
3
2
1
3
2
sin
3
2
cos 1 + =
|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
( ) 1 sin cos 1 = + t t i
i i
2
3
2
1
3
4
sin
3
4
cos 1 =
|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
i i
2
3
2
1
3
5
sin
3
5
cos 1 =
|
.
|

\
|
+
t t
Find the three cube roots of z = -2+2i
Again, first convert to trig form.

2 + 2i
( )
1
3
= 8 cos135
o
+ i sin135
o
( )
| |
1
3

8
1
2
|
\

|
.
|
1
3
cos
135 + 360 k
3
+ i sin
135 + 360 k
3
|
\

|
.
|
For k = 0, 1, and 2, the roots are:
( )
o o
i 45 sin 45 cos 2 +
( )
o o
i 165 sin 165 cos 2 +
( )
o o
i 285 sin 285 cos 2 +