# Chapter 2

Hardware Designed to Meet the Need
     The Digital Revolution Integrated Circuits and Processing Storage Input, Output, and Expansion Selecting and Purchasing a Computer

Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off the ringer.

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The Digital Revolution
 What does it mean to be digital?
 Key Terms  Binary number system  Digital convergence

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DIGITAL TV

DIGITAL Digital Camera
What’s all the fuss about digital?!
Digital Convergence
 Understand the importance of digitization …learn about how devices of all types use bytes.

The Digital Revolution

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DIGITAL

Recall from chapter 1….

The Bit (binary digit)
 Bits are the 1’s and 0’s that allow us to represent, store, and manipulate data  They are the smallest unit of data in a digital electronics device

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The Bit
 Bits aren’t really 1’s and 0’s, they are devices that can be set to one of two states. A bit can be a capacitor that is electronically charged or not charged. A bit can be an area of metal particles on the surface of a disk that are either magnetically charged or not. A bit can be a microscopic spot on a highly reflective disk surface that either has a pit burned into it or not.
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The Bit
 How can a bit (an on-off switch) represent useful data and information?  Information can be assigned to the two states of the bit:
On = Off =
1 and 0 are typically used to describe the state of a bit, but you could use anything; black/white, true/false, male/female, etc.

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The Bit
 How many units of information could be represented with 2 bits?

00 = 01 = 10 = 11 =

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The Bit
• How many units of information could be stored using 3 bits?

000 =
001 = 010 =

100 =
101 = 110 =

011 =

111 =

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Bit & Bytes
 Bytes can represent any collection of items using a “look-up table” approach  ASCII is used to represent characters

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ASCII Succeeding with Technology 4th ed> Hardware Designed to Meet the Need >

The Value of Going Digital
 Anything that can be expressed through words, numbers, sounds, pictures, and even scents can be digitized.  Digital information is easy to manipulate.  Digital information is easy to copy and transfer.  Digital information is long lasting.  Digitization standardizes the format of all different types of data and information leading to…

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Digital Convergence
 Digital convergence is the trend to merge multiple digital services into one device.

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Integrated Circuits and Processing
 Key Terms  Consider PC Choices  Transistor  Integrated circuit  Central Processing Unit (CPU)  Motherboard  Arithmetic/logic unit  Control unit  Random Access Memory (RAM)  The machine cycle  Megahertz (MHz)  Gigahertz (GHz)  Gigaflop  Moore’s Law

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Let’s go shopping!

CompUSA Sony Apple
In order to shop intelligently, you must understand the basics about processors, storage, input/output, and peripherals.
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Key Components
Processor Memory Storage
Removable Storage

Video
Networking

Security

OS
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Transistor
 A transistor is an electronics component, composed typically of silicon, that opens or closes a circuit to alter the flow of electricity to store and manipulate bits.

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Integrated Circuit
 An Integrated Circuit (chip) combines transistors and capacitors in a tiny module to store and process bits and bytes in today’s digital electronic devices.

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/physics/integrated_circuit/history/index.html

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The Central Processing Unit
 The Central Processing Unit (CPU) is a group of integrated circuits that work together to perform the processing in a computer system.

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The Motherboard
 The motherboard is the primary circuit board of a computing device that houses the digital device’s circuitry including the microprocessor and memory.

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Processing
 The microprocessor accesses instructions stored in memory over the system bus.
Random Access Memory (RAM) is temporary, or volatile, memory that stores bytes of data and program instructions for the processor to access.
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CPU Components
 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): contains the circuitry to carry out the instructions in the processors instruction set.  Control Unit: sequentially accesses program instructions, decodes them, and coordinates the flow of data throughout the system.  Registers: hold the data and instructions currently being processed (~300 bytes).
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Latest Technology
 Multicore technology refers to housing more than one CPU on a chip.  Dual-core processors and quad-core processors use two and four CPUs on one chip that work together to provide twice and four times the speed of traditional single-core chips.

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System Bus
 The system bus connects the CPU to the chipset, and through it to RAM and other components on the motherboard.

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Processing – The Machine Cycle
 The four stages of the machine cycle are (1) fetch the instruction from memory, (2) decode and (3) execute the instruction, then (4) store the results.

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CPU Characteristics
 The first consideration in selecting a computer is typically its speed: how quickly it can carry out such tasks as loading a program, opening a file, and writing to a CD.

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Computer Performance ~ Factors

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Moore’s Law
 Gordon Moore, cofounder of Intel, observed in 1965 that the continued advances in technological innovation made it possible to reduce the size of transistors, doubling their density on the chip every two years.
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Storage
 Key Terms  Read-only Memory  Magnetic Storage  Optical Storage  CD-ROM  DVD  CD-RW  Solid State Storage  Flash memory card  USB

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Secondary Storage
 Secondary storage is used to store data more permanently without the need for electricity.
Tape Drive

One of the storage silo robots in NERSC’s 8.8-petabyte High Performance Storage System.

Mini Cards

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Secondary Storage
Storage Media Type
 Magnetic storage devices use the magnetic properties of iron oxide particles to store bits and bytes more permanently than RAM.  Microdrives can store gigabytes of data on a disk one or two inches in size.  Optical storage media store bits using an optical laser to burn pits into the surface of a highly reflective surface.  Solid State storage devices use flash memory to store bits.
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23

System Storage
 System storage is storage that is used by a computer system for standard operations.  Forms of system storage, include  RAM Cache Video RAM ROM CMOS

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Graphics Memory
 Graphics memory, sometimes called video RAM or VRAM, is used to store image data for a computer display in order to speed the processing and display of video images.

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Magnetic Storage
 Hard Disk Drives  Magnetic Tape  High-capacity Disks & Floppy Disks (outdated)  Microdrives

Microdrives from Toshiba provide iPods with their ultra high storage capacity.

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Optical Media
 CD, DVD, Blu-laser Disk (BD)

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Solid State

Universal Serial Bus or USB is a standard that allows a wide variety of devices to connect to a computer through a common port.

 A flash memory card is a chip that, unlike RAM, is nonvolatile and keeps its memory without the need for electricity.  USB Flash Drives use flash memory to provide high capacity storage through the USB port.
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Input, Output, and Expansion
 Key Terms  Input device  Output device  Touch screen  Game controller  Display resolution  LCD

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I/O Concepts
 An input device assists in capturing and entering raw data into the computer system.  An output device allows you to observe the results of computer processing with one or more of your senses.

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I/O Concepts
 Speed and Functionality  Human vs. Machine Readable Data  Source Data Automation

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Input Devices
 Keyboard, Mouse, Trackball  Touch screen, stylus, kiosks  Microphone, speech recognition  Gamepad, other game-centered devices  Digital cameras  Scanning devices
http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/tabletpc/default.mspx

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Output Devices
 Displays Liquid crystal display (LCD) or Flat panel  Printers and Plotters  Sound Systems

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Researching a Computer Purchase
 Web sites such as www.cnet.com and www.zdnet.com can help you decide on a computer type and platform.

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Online Vendors
 Online merchants allow you to compare packages from varying manufacturers to find the best configuration and price.

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Strategies for Computer Shopping
 Choose type: notebook, desktop, tablet, smart phone, or netbook  Choose platform
 Windows/Mac/Linux

 Choose Manufacturer  Choose Model  Select Add-ons

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 Research
   www.zdnet.com www.cnet.com www.macworld.com
www.cdw.com www.compusa.com www.apple.com www.dell.com www.sony.com www.hp.com www.gateway.com www.toshiba.com

 

Computer Retailers
       

Direct from Manufacturer

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Chapter 2 Questions?

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