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VOR and ADF
VOR Head TO/FROM indicator or sense indicator Course Deviation Indicator or left/right needle or Track Bar Indicator Omni Bearing selector or Course selector .
C172 INSTRUMENT PANEL .
VHF Receiver .
INSTRUMENT PANEL .
COVERAGE .RECEPTION DISTANCE IS 1.IF AT MRA.23 x √ ALTITUDE . 50 NM .
PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION Operation of the VOR is based on a phase difference between two signals – a reference phase and a variable phase. The variable phase rotates uniformly at 1800 rpm causing its phase to vary at a constant rate. The reference phase. the phase being constant throughout 360 degrees. which is omni directional. radiates from the station in a circular pattern. .
. At Magnetic North. At other points around the compass. the two signals are exactly in phase. the phase difference varies accordingly.Magnetic North is the reference datum for measuring the phase difference between the two signals. The aircraft equipment resolves the phase difference and displays it primarily in the form of angular displacement from Magnetic North as measured from the VOR station.
TRACK BAR DEFLECTIONS .
VOR EQUIPMENT CHECKS .
TRACKING AWAY FROM A STATION .
TRACKING TO A STATION .
If the VOR signal is interrupted or the phasing is changed. the monitor system turns off defective equipment. When a VOR is “on the air” while servicing is taking place. a monitoring system and two transmitters insure continuous reliable service. turns on the stand-by transmitter.VOR RELIABILITY At the VOR facility. . the station identification is removed. and excites an alarm at the remote control station.
FREQUENCY RANGES .
ADF – Automatic Direction Finder .
ADF – Automatic Direction Finder Receiver tune and identify LF/MF 2 or 3 letter Morse code ILS locator 1 letter Morse code Signal also powers bearing indicator Antennae Loop senses direction of station Sense provides info if bearing to or from station Bearing indicator Points to station relative to nose or axis Fixed card 0o is nose and 180o is tail .
ADF FUNCTIONS AIRWAYS AIR ROUTES ILS LOCATORS – MARKER BEACONS MARINE BEACONS NDB APPROACHES COMMERCIAL BROADCAST .
ADF LIMITATIONS TWILIGHT EFFECT • • JUST BEFORE/AFTER SUNSET/SUNRISE .fly high GREATER AT GREAT DISTANCE – use less than 350 khz TERRAIN or MOUNTAIN EFFECT SHORELINE – signals crossing at less than 30o ELECTRICAL STORMS BANK ERROR – ALL TURNS • LOOP ANTENNAE ROTATES TO SENSE DIRECTION OF INCOMING SIGNAL AND IS MOUNTED PARALLEL TO NORMAL AXIS .
ADF ADVANTAGES LOW COST INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE NOT LINE OF LINE OF SIGHT SO GIVES GREATER RECEPTION AT LOWER ALTITUDES THAN VOR PRIMARY NAVIGATION OVER LONG DISTANCE IN REMOTE AREAS .
RIGHT TURN DESIRED TRACK + INTERCEPT ANGLE = INTERCEPT HEADING . PARALLEL TRACK 2.TRACKING TO THE STATION 1. DESIRED TO HEAD DETERMINES THE TURN 3. LEFT TURN DESIRED TRACK – INTERCEPT ANGLE = INTERCEPT HEADING 4.
RIGHT TURN DESIRED TRACK + INTERCEPT ANGLE = INTERCEPT HEADING . TAIL TO DESIRED DETERMINES THE TURN 3. LEFT TURN DESIRED TRACK – INTERCEPT ANGLE = INTERCEPT HEADING 4. PARALLEL TRACK 2.TRACKING FROM THE STATION 1.
THEN ADF BEARINGINDICATOR (VALUE) DECREASES HI LESS. WHEN INTERCEPTING A TRACK TO OR FROM A STATION. . MAGNETIC HEADING + RELATIVE BEARING = MAGNETIC BEARING TO THE STATION MH + RB = MB TO THE STATION MH = MB – RB RB = MB . ADF MORE WHEN TRACKING. 3.MH 2. ETC.SOME RULES 1. BEARING INDICATOR ALWAYS AWAY FROM 0 OR TOWARDS 180 WHEN TURNING. IF HEADING INDICATOR INCREASES. THEN WIND IS FROM THE RIGHT SO TURN RIGHT. 4. NEEDLE RIGHT? YES.