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I WISH EVERYONE A HAPPY ENGINEER’S DAY .

RADAR Nagarjuna palle .

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RADAR IN ANCIENT PERIOD .

 Conceived as early as 1880 by Heinrich Hertz  Observed that radio waves could be reflected off metal objects.  1940  Invention of the magnetron permits high power transmission at high frequency. thus making airborne radar. .   Radio Aid to Detection And Ranging 1930s  Britain built the first ground-based early warning system called Chain Home.

However as an illustration of the rapid progress that can be experienced in science and technology in only a decade the concrete dishes and wheeled trolleys are a monument to ingenuity and innovation in times of need – despite their ultimate failure. The system was effective in principle and the large parabolic dishes focussed the incoming parallel sound „rays‟ to a single point at which a listening device could be positioned.What is R A D A R ? Following the First World War in which Acoustic detection had been used against attacking aircraft in France experiments were carried out across the South and South-East of Britain‟s coasts. . In calm air conditions a range of about 15 miles (25 km) could be achieved but the speed (350 kph) of the aircraft in existence when the system was eventually abandoned was such that only about 4 minutes warning of approach could be given.Before Radar . radio transmissions and direction sensing (see Dr Hans E Hollmann) through the work of scientists working with short wavelength radio direction finders that the use of audio-detectors had little future.

through to the Japanese version (above) showed that the thinking behind the technology did not really changed. In fact the electronic device of Christian Huelsmeyer had a far more scientific principle and clearly much greater potential than these.This earlier version ( left ) from just after the First world war period . . By early 1936 it was becoming clear that developments in a number of sites give some detailed historic information about the development of the early sound detection systems and are well worth visiting and reading. It is hardly surprising that RADAR developed as it did.

Before the invention of RADAR there was obviously a need to detect enemy aircraft.We all know that a RADAR is used to detect the position of aircraft using radio waves. The term RADAR was first coined in 1941 and stands for RAdio Detection And Ranging. So what do you think they did? See pictures below… .

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RADAR IN MEDIEVAL PERIOD .

target tracking. target illumination. . weather warning. altimeter. collision avoidance. ground mapping. target acquisition. Currently ◦ Radar is the primary sensor on nearly all military aircraft. ◦ Practical frequency range of conventional RADAR is 225MHz-35GHz. ◦ Roles include airborne early warning.

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 Two common transmission techniques: ◦ pulses ◦ continuous wave .

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 Frequency Modulated CW Radar ◦ Use for radar altimeters and missile guidance. Pulse Doppler ◦ Carrier wave frequency within pulse is compared with a reference signal to detect moving targets. (search radars)  Frequency Agile Systems ◦ Difficult to jam.  Moving Target Indicator (MTI) System ◦ Signals compared with previous return to enhance moving targets. .

  SAR / ISAR Phased Array . ◦ Also allows for high / low power output depending on requirements.Aegis ◦ Essentially 360° Coverage ◦ Phase shift and frequency shift allow the planar array to “steer” the beam. .

• vs is the velocity of the source relative to the medium. positive if the receiver is moving towards the source. positive if the source is moving away from the receiver • fO is the frequency of wave .Where :• f is the apparent frequency • v is velocity of wave in the medium • vobs is the velocity of the receiver relative to the medium.

Radar Frequencies .

Wavelength 1 km 1m 1 mm 1 mm 1 nm Frequency 1 MHz 1 GHz 109 Hz 1012 Hz IR UV Visible UHF VH F 0 1 L-Band S-Band C-Band X-Band Ku K Ka W 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Allocated Frequency (GHz) 7 6 5 Wavelength (cm) 4 9 10 11 12 30 20 10 9 8 3 .

Tp = 1/PRF. . usually in kHz ◦ pulse period. usually expressed in msec ◦ pulse repetition frequency. usually in msec . PRF. Denote: ◦ pulse width.  A pulsed radar is characterized by a high power transmitter that generates an endless sequence of pulses. The rate at which the pulses are repeated is defined as the pulse repetition frequency.

Transmitter Synchronizer RF ATR Duplexer Power Supply Echo TR (Switching Unit) Antenna Display Video Receiver Antenna Bearing or Elevation .

EEE381B .

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Range  c = 3 x 108 m/sec t is time to receive return c*t 2 divide by 2 because pulse traveled to object and back .

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Radar beams can be attenuated. reflected and bent by the environment • Atmospheric attenuation • Reflection off of earth’s surface • Over-the-horizon diffraction • Atmospheric refraction .

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Ramb return time  PRF A target whose range is: ◦ R < Ramb = c / (2 PRF) = cTp / 2 0 10 20 30 .

Ramb return time PRF  A target whose range is : ◦ R > Ramb = c / (2 PRF) = cTp / 2 0 10 20 30 .

Ramb PRF  Which target is which? 0 10 ? 20 30 .

in other words targets that are further than half the pulse period yield ambiguous range results. The range of a target becomes ambiguous as a function of half the pulse period.   The PRF is another key radar parameter and is arguably one of the most difficult design decisions. Ramb = c / (2 PRF) = cTp / 2 .

Recall that the directivity of an antenna is measured as a function of its gain. Therefore antenna types most useful for radar applications include parabolic and array antenna.   A basic principle of radar is that it directs energy (in the form of an EM wave) at its intended target(s). .

 Early airborne radars typically consisted of parabolic reflectors with horn feeds. . ◦ The dish effectively directs the transmitted energy towards a target while at the same time “gathering and concentrating” some fraction of the returned energy.

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 Recent radars more likely employ a planar array ◦ It is electronically steerable as a transmit or receive antenna using phase shifters. . ◦ It has the further advantage of being capable of being integrated with the skin of the aircraft (“smart skin”).

. The main lobe of the radar antenna beam is central to the performance of the system. ◦ The side lobes are not only wasteful. they provide electronic warfare vulnerabilities.

Common modes include: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ air-to-air search air-to-air tracking air-to-air track-while-scan (TWS) ground mapping continuous wave (CW) illumination multimode . Airborne radars are designed for and used in many different modes.

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 A target that is tracked is said to be “locked on”. key data to maintain on locked targets is: A frame of reference using pitch and roll from aircraft attitude indicators is required for angle tracking.  . ◦ azimuth and elevation angle. Three angle tracking techniques are: ◦ sequential lobing ◦ conical scan ◦ monopulse ◦ range.

a synthetic aperture is produced by the signal processing that has the effect of an antenna with a much larger aperture (and hence a much greater angular resolution). Note: Due to the change in line-of-sight direction.synthetic-aperture radar (SAR): A coherent radar system that generates a narrow cross range impulse response by signal processing (integrating) the amplitude and phase of the received signal over an angular rotation of the radar line of sight with respect to the object (target) illuminated. (IEEE standards) .

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 Video 1 .

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. Step by step analysis of the image.• • Final image with lots of artifacts and features.

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 Employs continual RADAR transmission Separate transmit and receive antennas Relies on the “DOPPLER SHIFT”   .

Motion Away: Echo Frequency Decreases Motion Towards: Echo Frequency Increases .

Transmitter CW RF Oscillator Antenna OUT Discriminator AMP Mixer IN Antenna Indicator .

Pulse Echo
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Single Antenna Gives Range, usually Alt. as well Susceptible To Jamming Physical Range Determined By PW and PRF.

Continuous Wave  Requires 2 Antennae  Range or Alt. Info  High SNR  More Difficult to Jam But Easily Deceived  Amp can be tuned to look for expected frequencies

 Amplitude Modulation
– Vary the amplitude of the carrier sine wave

 Frequency Modulation
– Vary the frequency of the carrier sine wave

 Pulse-Amplitude Modulation
– Vary the amplitude of the pulses

 Pulse-Frequency Modulation
– Vary the Frequency at which the pulses occur

True Bearing = Ship’s Heading + Relative Bearing N Ship’s Heading Angle Target Angle .Azimuth Angular Measurement Relative Bearing = Angle from ship’s heading.

Determining Altitude e ang tR n Sla Altitude Angle of Elevation Altitude = slant range x sin0 elevation .

        Signal Reception Receiver Bandwidth Pulse Shape Power Relation Beam Width Pulse Repetition Frequency Antenna Gain Radar Cross Section of Target     Signal-to-noise ratio Receiver Sensitivity Pulse Compression Scan Rate ◦ Mechanical ◦ Electronic   Carrier Frequency Antenna aperture .

    Signal Reception Signal-to-Noise Ratio Receiver Bandwidth Receiver Sensitivity .

. • The weaker the signal that the receiver can process. the greater the effective range . • Only a fraction of that returns to the antenna.• Only a minute portion of the RF is reflected off the target.

. Threshold level used to remove excess noise. noise is greater that target‟s return. ◦ At some range.   Noise sets the absolute lower limit of the unit‟s sensitivity. ◦ Noise is always present.  Measured in dB!!!!! Ability to recognize target in random noise.

 Reducing the bandwidth ◦ Increases the signal-to-noise ratio(good) ◦ Distorts the transmitted pulse(bad) .  Is the frequency range the receiver can process. Receiver must process many frequencies ◦ Pulse are generated by summation of sine waves of various frequencies. ◦ Frequency shifts occur from Doppler Effects.

◦ Milliwatts range. Smallest return signal that is discernible against the noise background. .  An important factor in determining the unit‟s maximum range.

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 Mapping radar scans a large regions for remote sensing and geography applications Wearable radar which is used to help the visually impaired Air traffic control uses radar to reflect echoes off of aircraft Weather radar uses radar to reflect echoes off of clouds    .

They are used on commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft   . Search radars scan a large area with pulses of short radio waves Targeting radars use the same principle but scan a smaller area more often Navigational radars are like search radar. but use short waves that reflect off hard surfaces.

 Weather radars use radio waves with horizontal. or circular polarization Some weather radars use the Doppler effect to measure wind speeds  . dual (horizontal and vertical).

and the solar wind . the magnetosphere. Used to study the Earth's ionosphere and its interactions with the upper atmosphere.

 Electrons in ionosphere are radar targets These electrons can scatter radio waves  .

 The strength of the echo received from the ionosphere measures the number of electrons able to scatter radio waves or what we call electron pressure .

Some electrons are moving due to heat - In this case the echo is scattered The echo will contain a range of frequencies close to the transmitter frequency As the temperature increases, the electrons move faster So radar can act like a thermometer and measure the temperature of the ionosphere

When an electron is removed from an atom, the remaining charged atom is called an ion The ion gas can have a different temperature from the electron gas The electron/ion mixture is known as a plasma and is usually in motion (like our wind) So incoherent scatter radar can also measure wind speed

Remote Radar Network for Traffic Observation
in Tokyo Bay

Tokyo University of Marine Scienc

To prevent maritime accidents in congested waters and improve the efficiency of vessel traffic. . it is important to know the vessel traffic characteristics and carry out appropriate vessel traffic management. Up to now. In order to perform long-term and long-range vessel traffic observations in Tokyo Bay. completely automated remote radar/AIS network system has been developed. vessel traffic observation has needed expensive resources such as a ship or car equipped with special radar observation system and experienced observation staff.

Kawasaki Radar Station Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology Monitoring Station Yokosuka Radar Station .

Radar antenna at Yokosuka radar station Radar antenna and AIS receiver at Kawasaki radar station .

Composite radar image from Yokosuka and Kawasaki radar stations displayed on the monitoring screen .

Composite radar image and ships’ positions and speed vectors obtained from AIS on web site .

AIS information display on web site .

RADAR IN THE FUTURE .

7 cm Power is 750.    Named WSR-88D S-band radar radiation wavelength is λ = 10.000 kW ◦ Tallahassee (right) .

some of it bounces back ◦ Can determine where the particle was ◦ Measures “reflectivity” of the particle ◦ NEXRAD can also detect motion of the particles (“Doppler effect”) .“Radio Detection and Ranging” ◦ When the electromagnetic pulse hits something.

 Better Determination of Precipitation Type Better Estimates of Rainfall Amount Better Detection of Hail   .

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Image courtesy .

– = Size (| + –) = Shape σ(| + –) = Variety Image courtesy .Dual-Polarization Radar tells us about the size. shape. & variety of objects.

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NEXRAD Doppler Radar Network .

NEXRAD Facts and Figures  158 radars (141 in the Continental US) ◦ 120 National Weather Service radars ◦ 26 Department of Defense radars ◦ 12 Federal Aviation Administration radars .

NEXRAD Data Types
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Archive Level I (raw receiver data) Level II data (digital data in spherical coordinates at full resolution) Archive Level III (digital products) Archive Level IV (forecaster-generated products)

NEXRAD Data Types
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Archive Level I (raw receiver data) Level II data (digital data in spherical coordinates at full resolution) Archive Level III (digital products) Archive Level IV (forecaster-generated products)


24 products available from all CONUS radars in real time Lowest 4 elevation angles only Low-precision because values are quantized (e.g., 0-5, 5-10, 10-15)

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Those above 65 (purple) are likely hail. dBZ levels higher than 30 (dark green) are rainfall reaching the ground. .

if snow. it likely reaches the ground . But.   dBZ values below 30 become important now. If rain and < 30 generally very light drizzle not reaching ground.

Radar on left more sensitive .

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. New radar technology will result in improved forecast and warning operations.

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Nagarjuna .

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