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• • • • • • • • Properties of the Normal Distribution Shapes of Normal Distributions Standard (Z) Scores The Standard Normal Distribution Transforming Z Scores into Proportions Transforming Proportions into Z Scores Finding the Percentile Rank of a Raw Score Finding the Raw Score for a Percentile

Chapter 10 – 1

Normal Distributions

• Normal Distribution – A bell-shaped and symmetrical theoretical distribution, with the mean, the median, and the mode all coinciding at its peak and with frequencies gradually decreasing at both ends of the curve. • The normal distribution is a theoretical ideal distribution. Real-life empirical distributions never match this model perfectly. However, many things in life do approximate the normal distribution, and are said to be “normally distributed.”

Chapter 10 – 2

**Scores “Normally Distributed?”
**

Table 10.1 Final Grades in Social Statistics of 1,200 Students (1983-1993) Midpoint Cum. Freq. Cum % Score Frequency Bar Chart Freq. (below) % (below) 40 * 4 4 0.33 0.33 50 ******* 78 82 6.5 6.83 60 *************** 275 357 22.92 29.75 70 *********************** 483 840 40.25 70 80 *************** 274 1114 22.83 92.83 90 ******* 81 1195 6.75 99.58 100 * 5 1200 0.42 100

• Is this distribution normal? • There are two things to initially examine: (1) look at the shape illustrated by the bar chart, and (2) calculate the mean, median, and mode.

Chapter 10 – 3

and this supports the bar graph in expressing that these data are normally distributed. since the median is approximately equal to the mean. • Also. we know that the distribution is symmetrical.Scores Normally Distributed! • • • • The Mean = 70. Chapter 10 – 4 .07 The Median = 70 The Mode = 70 Since all three are essentially equal.

The Shape of a Normal Distribution: The Normal Curve Chapter 10 – 5 .

Chapter 10 – 6 .The Shape of a Normal Distribution Notice the shape of the normal curve in this graph. Some normal distributions are tall and thin. though. are wider in the middle and symmetrical. All normal distributions. while others are short and wide.

Chapter 10 – 7 .Different Shapes of the Normal Distribution Notice that the standard deviation changes the relative width of the distribution. the larger the standard deviation. the wider the curve.

Areas Under the Normal Curve by Measuring Standard Deviations Chapter 10 – 8 .

Y Y Z Sy Chapter 10 – 9 .Standard (Z) Scores • A standard score (also called Z score) is the number of standard deviations that a given raw score is above or below the mean.

Chapter 10 – 10 .Using the Standard Normal Table (Appendix B) The curve s above show the area that is given in columns “B” and “C” of the standard normal table.

find the percentage of students whose scores range from the mean (70.07) to 85.1.45 • (2) Look up the Z score (1. • (1) Convert 85 to a Z score: Z = (85-70.Finding the Area Between the Mean and a Positive Z Score • Using the data presented in Table 10. finding the proportion (.45) in column A.07)/10.4265) Chapter 10 – 11 .27 = 1.

Chapter 10 – 12 .Finding the Area Between the Mean and a Positive Z Score (3) Convert the proportion (. this is the percentage of students scoring between the mean and 85 in the course.4265) to a percentage (42.65%).

Finding the Area Between the Mean and a Negative Z Score • Using the data presented in Table 10.07) • (1) Convert 65 to a Z score: Z = (65-70. find the percentage of students scoring between 65 and the mean (70.1879 Chapter 10 – 13 .07)/10.49 • (2) Since the curve is symmetrical and negative area does not exist.1.27 = -.49 to find the area in the standard normal table: . use .

79%).Finding the Area Between the Mean and a Negative Z Score (3) Convert the proportion (.07) Chapter 10 – 14 . this is the percentage of students scoring between 65 and the mean (70.1879) to a percentage (18.

38 and Z = 1.1. find the percentage of students scoring between 74 and 84.4131 Chapter 10 – 15 .Finding the Area Between 2 Z Scores on the Same Side of the Mean • Using the same data presented in Table 10.36 • (2) Look up the corresponding areas for those Z scores: .1480 and . • (1) Find the Z scores for 74 and 84: Z = .

Chapter 10 – 16 .Finding the Area Between 2 Z Scores on the Same Side of the Mean (3) To find the highlighted area above. subtract the smaller area from the larger area (. we have the percentage of students scoring between 74 and 84.2651) Now.4131-.1480=.

find the percentage of students scoring between 62 and 72.Finding the Area Between 2 Z Scores on Opposite Sides of the Mean • Using the same data.3605 Chapter 10 – 17 .2852 • (3) Add the two areas together: .19 Z = (62-70.79 is .2852 = . • (1) Find the Z scores for 62 and 72: Z = (72-70.07)/10.07)/10.0753 and Z = -.19 is .27 = -.79 • (2) Look up the areas between these Z scores and the mean.27 = . like in the previous 2 examples: Z = .0753 + .

this is the percentage of students scoring between 62 and 72.3605) to a percentage (36.Finding the Area Between 2 Z Scores on Opposite Sides of the Mean (4) Convert the proportion (.05%). Chapter 10 – 18 .

scoring below 50. then look up the value (look for a positive Z score!) in column C: Z = (50-70. then look up the value in column C of the standard normal table: Z = (85-70.Finding Area Above a Positive Z Score or Below a Negative Z Score • Find the percentage of students who did (a) very well.07)/10.27 = 1.45 7.95 2. • (a) Convert 85 to a Z score.56% Chapter 10 – 19 . scoring above 85.35% • (b) Convert 50 to a Z score. and (b) those students who did poorly.07)/10.27 = -1.

Finding Area Above a Positive Z Score or Below a Negative Z Score Chapter 10 – 20 .

look in column C for .1000.07 + 1.22 Chapter 10 – 21 . this is the Z score (1.28 (10.10 • (2) Using the standard normal table.1) • (1) 10% = a proportion of .27) = 83.28) • (3) Finally convert the Z score to a raw score: Y=70. then take the value in column A.Finding a Z Score Bounding an Area Above It • Find the raw score that bounds the top 10 percent of the distribution (Table 10.

28 Chapter 10 – 22 .Finding a Z Score Bounding an Area Above It (4) 83. The Z score associated with 83.22 in this distribution is 1.22 is the raw score that bounds the upper 10% of the distribution.

1) • (1) 5% = a proportion of .Finding a Z Score Bounding an Area Below It • Find the raw score that bounds the lowest 5 percent of the distribution (Table 10. then take the value in column A.65). this is the Z score (-1.05 • (2) Using the standard normal table.07 + -1.05. look in column C for .65 (10.27) = 53. negative. since on the left side of the distribution • (3) Finally convert the Z score to a raw score: Y=70.12 Chapter 10 – 23 .

65 Chapter 10 – 24 .12 in this distribution is -1. The Z score associated with 53.Finding a Z Score Bounding an Area Below It (4) 53.12 is the raw score that bounds the lower 5% of the distribution.

0735 • (3) Subtract the area from 1.45 • (2) Find the area beyond Z in the Standard Normal Table (Column C): .0735 is the only area not below the score: 1..00 .0735 = .Finding the Percentile Rank of a Score Higher than the Mean • Suppose your raw score was 85.07)/10.9265 (proportion of scores below 85) Chapter 10 – 25 . since .27 = 1.) • (1) Convert the raw score to a Z score: Z = (85-70. You want to calculate the percentile (to see where in the class you rank.00 for the percentile.

65% Chapter 10 – 26 .Finding the Percentile Rank of a Score Higher than the Mean (4) .9265 represents the proportion of scores less than 85 corresponding to a percentile rank of 92.

• (1) Convert the raw score to a Z score Z = (65-70.3121 x 100 = 31. Column C: . suppose your raw score was 65.3121 • (3) Multiply by 100 to obtain the percentile rank: .21% Chapter 10 – 27 .49 • (2) Find the are beyond Z in the Standard Normal Table.Finding the Percentile Rank of a Score Lower than the Mean • Now.27 = -.07)/10.

Finding the Percentile Rank of a Score Lower than the Mean Chapter 10 – 28 .

0500: Z = 1.00 . What’s the cutoff for the 95th%? • (1) Find the area associated with the percentile: 95/100 = .9500 • (2) Subtract the area from 1.Finding the Raw Score of a Percentile Higher than 50 • Say you need to score in the 95th% to be accepted to a particular grad school program.9500 = ..00 to find the area above & beyond the percentile rank: 1.0500 • (3) Find the Z Score by looking in Column C of the Standard Normal Table for .65 Chapter 10 – 29 .

65(10.Finding the Raw Score of a Percentile Higher than 50 (4) Convert the Z score to a raw score. Y= 70.27) = 87.07 + 1.02 Chapter 10 – 30 .

25 • (3) Convert the Z score to a raw score: Y = 70.07 + -.Finding the Raw Score of a Percentile Lower than 50 • What score is associated with the 40th%? • (1) Find the area below the percentile: 40/100 = . but remember that this is a negative Z score since it is less than the mean: -.5 Chapter 10 – 31 .27) = 67.25(10.4000 • (2) Find the Z score associated with this area. Use column C.

Finding the Raw Score of a Percentile Lower than 50 Chapter 10 – 32 .

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