This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Background Toyota Production System Key Lean Techniques Advantages and Disadvantages People and Customers Economics Changes in Lean Current Lean Practices Case Studies
Lean Manufacturing – A way to eliminate waste and improve efficiency in a manufacturing environment Lean focuses on flow, the value stream and eliminating muda, the Japanese word for waste Lean manufacturing is the production of goods using less of everything compared to traditional mass production: less waste, human effort, manufacturing space, investment in tools, inventory, and engineering time to develop a new product
Lean and Just-in-Time
Lean was generated from the Just-in-time (JIT) philosophy of continuous and forced problem solving Just-in-time is supplying customers with exactly what they want when they want it With JIT, supplies and components are “pulled” through a system to arrive where they are needed when they are needed
What is Waste?
Waste is anything that happens to a product that does not add value from the customer’s perspective Products being stored, inspected or delayed, products waiting in queues, and defective products do not add value
and handling more than once is waste Inventory – unnecessary raw material. and waiting are wastes Transportation – moving material between plants.Seven Wastes Overproduction – producing more than the customer orders or producing early. Inventory of any kind is usually waste. warranty claims. rework and scrap . Queues – idle time. storage. between work centers. work-in-process (WIP). finished goods. and excess operating supplies Motion – movement of equipment or people Overprocessing – work performed on product that adds no value Defective product – returns.
Origins Lean Manufacturing is sometimes called the Toyota Production System (TPS) because Toyota Motor Company’s Eiji Toyoda and Taiichui Ohno are given credit for its approach and innovations .
methods. and quantity of goods or services provided Product and service flows must be simple and direct – goods and services are directed to a specific person or machine Any improvement in the system must be made in accordance with the “scientific method” at the lowest possible level in the organization .Underlying Principles to TPS Work shall be completely specified as to content. sequence. both internal and external. must be direct and specify personnel. timing. timing. and outcome Every customer-supplier connection.
gaps become immediately evident. These lead to increase in market share and profitability. . Results of the TPS are improvements in reliability. and efficiency.Toyota Production System Since the Toyota Production System requires that activities. safety. flexibility. and flow paths have built-in tests to signal problems automatically. connections.
Key Lean Manufacturing Techniques 5S Single Minute Exchange of Dies Kanban Cellular Manufacturing .
smoothly flowing manufacturing process .5S Strategy for creating a well organized.
5S Examples Before After .
Benefits of 5S Increases organization and efficiency Avoids wasted motion Increases safety Eliminates unnecessary inventory Offers improvements at an inexpensive cost .
5S Drawbacks If not fully implemented. may result in “Jive S” Store things Stick to the rules Superficially clean Switch to new fixtures Serve reluctantly Can not be considered an end goal – must be part of a continuous .
Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) Method that focuses on the rapid conversion from manufacturing one product to the next .
SMED and Lean SMED needs to be treated as a constant improvement program Setup times can not be minimized overnight Continuous evaluation and exploration of further improvements is absolutely necessary .
Simple CNC Example New batch of parts arrives Change over tools for the batch Set offsets for new tools Load NC program Validate Load part onto machine Cycle start and wait Unload and visually inspect (adjust if necessary) 18 Run parts 12/13/2012 .
g. adjust the machine depth. change the tool. get lifting equipment in place. etc.. sharpen a tool (which requires the machine to be stopped). . get all your clamps. get the next tool. etc. Internal elements of work can only be done while the machine is stopped e.g. put equipment away.External elements of work can be completed while the machine is still running e.
SMED Examples .
SMED Examples .
SMED Examples .
Set slide allows quick (temporary) alignment of 2 parts.SMED Examples For example: A slide clamp reduced the time required to load and unload parts to fixture. 2 hold-down clamps eliminated the need to tape parts during a glue-up operation. .
SMED Examples Split thread bolts Handles Toggle clamps U-shaped washers .
you don’t need a tool.Make the tool part of the screw device -. and this will save time in disassembling and reassembling the 12/13/2012 and fixturing! tooling 25 .
Reduce the amount of turns required in order to activate the screw. 12/13/2012 26 .
Reduce the amount of screw turns and eliminate the tool! 12/13/2012 27 .
12/13/2012 28 .
12/13/2012 29 .
12/13/2012 30 .
Benefits of SMED Increases throughput by reducing setup times Eliminates setup errors Increases safety Reduces the cost of setups Reduces waiting times and inventory buildups Decreases the required skill level of the operators .
how much to make. and where to send it Cards stay attached to a bin that holds the product When bin is empty. and the cycle continues .Kanban A system that uses replenishment signals to simplify inventory management Signals (usually cards) hold product details What to make. when to make it. it is returned to the start of the assembly line for replenishment Full bins are returned to the customer.
Kanban Example Supermarket Ordering System .
effective.Benefits of Kanban Highly visible systems Simple. and inexpensive Reduces inventory and eliminates stockouts Improves the quality of service Improves lead times .
Cellular Manufacturing Dividing the manufacture of products into semi-autonomous and multi-skilled teams known as work cells .
Cellular Manufacturing Example Functional Layout Cellular Layout .
Benefits of Cellular Manufacturing Simplifies material flow and management Reduces interdepartmental travel Reduces throughput time Reduces lot sizes Simplifies scheduling .
Lean Manufacturing Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages: Disadvantages: Increased overall productivity Reduced amount of floor space required Reduced manufacturing lead time Improved flexibility to react to changes Improved quality Difficulty involved with changing processes to implement lean principals Long term commitment required Very risky process expect supply chain issues while changing over to lean .
Success of lean requires the full commitment and involvement of all employees and of the company’s suppliers.People Transition to Lean is difficult since a company must build a culture where learning and continuous improvement are the norm. .
Extrinsic Narrow Difficult and Fragmented Lean Fast & Positive Enhanced Positive. Intrinsic Broad Easy & Localized Improvement Quality & Coordination Effective Teams Strong Motivation Job Enrichment Fewer Supervisors .How People Benefit from Lean Element Communication Teamwork Motivation Skill Range Supervision Traditional Slow & Uncertain Inhibited Negative.
How Customer’s Benefit from Lean Element Response Customization Traditional Weeks Difficult Lean Hours Easy Improvement 70-90% Competitive Advantage Delivery Speed Delivery Reliability Delivery Quantities Quality Weeks-Months Erratic Large Shipments Erratic Days Consistent & High JIT as Required Consistent & High 70-90% Up to 90% Locks in JIT Customers Delighted Customers .
House of Lean .
Economics Reduction of Inventory Reduced Waste Less space necessary to hold inventory Decreased Production Cost Able to provide what the customer wants quickly Faster response to the customer Lower Cost Higher Quality Increased market share Increased competitive advantage .
Changes in Lean since the beginning .
Inventory Comparison Inventory Turnover – annual cost of goods sold from the income statement divided by the value of inventory from the balance sheet .
and improvement Proactive management Boundarlyless collaboration Drive for perfection. management. tolerance failure 6 ingredients .and fact-driven management Process focus.Quality Control 6 sigma process Combination of old and new ideas Genuine focus on the customer Data.
Lean Maintenance .
A Simultaneous Approach .
6 Tools for Lean Maintenance Visual Controls 5S Seven Wastes Single Minute Exchange of Dies Poka-yoke Total Productive Maintenance .
Other impacts of Lean Bell South – service industry Management system and operations Control Process management. management control. work measurement. and people development Combines lean and 6 sigma Feed logistics Animal Resource Planning Woburn Safari Parks .
a division of a German owned company. Manufactures protective masking that prevents abrasion and staining of exposed surfaces during manufacturing and delivery Industries Using Material: Plastics Automotives Construction Electronics Laminates Furniture Textiles High demand product 24/7 production .Background Poli-film America Inc.
hand counts were necessary to confirm the numbers counted by computers Led to many employees spending many hours and led to low processing and limit of work utilization .Problems An enterprise resource planning system that encompassed an unstable database Lack of frequency in supplies and storage – errors in production and set limits Unable to trace items Main concern – program’s ability to adapt to changing processes and production goals while still maintaining inventory traceability real time data with multiple distribution sites The database was untrustworthy account of inventory.
takes less than 5 min currently .Results Chose a new program to implement in later 2003 Greatest impact on company’s inventory flow and order distribution Real time traceability allowed him to cut down on the 2 mil lbs of film and other materials by more than half and maintain a sufficient safety stock for when its time to reorder and restock Benefits through Lean Time and money has seen dramatic cuts Allowed company to expand for more regional coverage Been simplified for reports Reduce time taken to accomplish certain tasks and add more responsibilities Instead of 20 min to fill an order.