The sharing of information between two or more individuals or groups to reach a common understanding.
IMPORTANCE OF GOOD COMMUNICATION
• Increased efficiency in new technologies and skills
• Improved quality of products and services • Increased responsiveness to customers • More innovation through communication
INFORMATION RICHNESS OF COMMUNICATION MEDIA
WHY BODY LANGUAGE ?
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
Communicating by touch varies greatly with the purpose and setting
Professional • typically by people in the medical profession or other caring jobs. Punishment • a slap or a punch sends a very strong Greeting • Touching is a common part of many greeting rituals, from shaking hands to cheek-kissing to full-body hugs.
• When a person is physically moving, a touch on the body, usually the back, shoulder or arm can guide them in the right direction.
•When you touch another person who is talking or otherwise engaged elsewhere, they are very likely to turn their attention to you. Sympathy •When we are distressed, we will often appreciate the touch of another as a parent, providing physical comfort. Friendship •Touching is often a part of friendship and demonstrates closeness Arousal •Touch is also used during sexual arousal, where certain sensitive parts of the body are caressed and stimulated.
• Kinesics communication is communicating by body movement and is perhaps the most well-known non-verbal form of communication
• Body posture
• Facial signals
Proxemic communication is communicating with others by virtue of the relative positioning of your bodies. • Geographic territory
• People act differently at different places.
• Personal space
• Intimate: touching to 10 inches. For close friends and family. • Casual-personal: 18 inches to four feet: Informal conversation with friends. • Social-consultative: four to twelve feet: formal transactions. • Public: Addressing groups of people.
• Body angling
FIVE C’S OF BODY LANGUAGE
Context: • The first filter involves judging whether nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to their context. A man screaming and flailing his arms may be reacting to danger, or he may be watching a football game. Variables like setting, time of day, and past experience shape the context of any behaviour . Clusters: • Someone with folded arms may merely be cold, but when paired with a frown and head shake, those arms reliably indicate an unreceptive attitude. A good rule of thumb is to look for two other reinforcing behaviours before assigning meaning to the first.
•When people believe what they are saying, their body language confirms it, and their expressions and gestures are congruent with their words. Incongruence (such as saying ―I am really happy about that‖ while scowling) may reveal the speaker’s own inner conflict between opinion and words, or it may betray deceptiveness.
Consistency: •Consider whether the behaviour is atypical. A warning carries more weight when it comes from a person known to be habitually unflappable. It is helpful to know a person’s baseline behaviour before reading too much into any single expression. Culture: •The last filter has assumed increasing importance in today’s global economy. People under any stress tend to revert to the body language of their culture or subculture. In such situations, cultural literacy on the part of both speakers can prevent misunderstandings.
TYPES OF BODY LANGUAGE
Parts of Body
Hand and Finger gestures
Voluntary/ Intentiona l
Involuntar y Movemen ts
The neutral head position
• the position taken by the person who has a neutral attitude about what is being said. • The head remains still and the conversation may be punctuated by occasional small nods.
Hillary Clinton using her defiant Chin Thrust
• hen the head is lifted high with the chin jutting forward it signals superiority, fearlessness or arrogance.
The Head Tilt
• The Head Tilt displays the vulnerable neck and makes a person appear smaller and more submissive
When people talk, they often gesture with their hands. These hand gestures not only communicate a message to the listener, but also reflect the thoughts of the person who is gesturing.
People normally hug each other and in most cases back patting occurs towards the end of the hug which is a gesture of affection and that the air kisses made - the sound made on the side of someone's cheek - is also affection.
WHY READING BODY LANGUAGE IS IMPORTANT?
• 70% of communication is non verbal • So if you are not watching the non verbal communication you are as good as deaf • Importance in
• Management • Recruitment • Cross-culture work
RELEVANCE IN MANAGEMENT
• Power Dominance – Dynamics
• Hiring & Promotion • Finding out the implicit meaning in actual actions
RELEVANCE IN RECRUITMENT
In interview, you are communicating your message on many different levels. By ensuring your preparations focus on both what you say and how you say it, will help ensure you deliver a polished, powerful and persuasive performance, worthy of any presidential candidate.
Relevance in Cross Culture
ARMS AKIMBO Aggression, Resistance, Impatience and anger in most cultures ARMS BEHIND BACK Sign of ease and control
The American goodbye wave can be interpreted in many parts of Europe and Latin America as the signal for NO
The Italian goodbye wave can be interpreted by Americans as the gesture of ―come here‖‖
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
• Body Movement
We send information on attitude toward person (facing or leaning towards another), emotional statue (tapping fingers, jiggling coins), and desire to control the environment (moving towards or away from a person).
Bowing (not done, criticized, or affected in US; shows rank in Japan) Slouching (rude in most Northern European areas) Hands in pocket (disrespectful in Turkey) Sitting with legs crossed (offensive in Ghana, Turkey) Showing soles of feet (Offensive in Thailand, Saudi Arabia)
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION
Even simple things like using hands to point and count differ. Pointing US with index finger; Germany with little finger; Japanese with entire hand (in fact most Asians consider pointing with index finger to be rude) Counting Thumb = 1 in Germany, 5 in Japan, middle finger for 1 in Indonesia.
• Eye contact and Gaze
USA - degree of attention or interest, influences attitude change or persuasion Western cultures — direct eye to eye contact as positive. A prolonged gaze is often seen as a sign of sexual interest. Arabic cultures make prolonged eye-contact, it shows interest and helps them understand truthfulness of the other person. Japan, Africa, Latin American, Caribbean — avoid eye contact to show respect.
SOME TIPS FOR AN IMPRESSIVE BODY LANGUAGE
• To boost your confidence, assume a power pose • To connect instantly with someone, shake hands
• To stimulate good feelings, smile
• To show agreement, mirror expressions and postures
• To improve your speech, use your hands
• Misinterpretation of
• Can be BIG trouble • Legal trouble • Do you know how to act or are you confused?
Psychologist Paul Ekman says, “We talk with our vocal cords, but we communicate with our facial expressions, our tone of voice and our whole body.”
Management Consultant Nancy Austin says, “When people do not know whether to believe what they are hearing or what they are seeing, they go with the body language—it tells the truth. You can play fast and loose with words. However, it is much more difficult to do that with gestures.”
ANY QUESTIONS ?