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Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures.

Computer programs
2
o
Ciclo de Palestras em Engenharia Civil-2003
12 de Novembro de 2003
Universidade Nova de Lisboa-Centro de Investigaao em Estruturas e Construo-UNIC


Push-over analysis for seismic
performance evaluation of RC frame
structures. Computer programs



Dr. C. G. Chiorean

Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Bolseiro na UNL/FCT, Lisboa, Portugal

Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Part II.
Computer programs
NEFCAD Computer program for large deflection elasto-plastic
analysis of spatial frame structures

ASEP Computer program for inelastic analysis of arbitrary
reinforced and composite concrete sections
Outline
Part I.
Push-over analysis for seismic performance
evaluation of spatial RC frame structures
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Static Nonlinear analysis -Push-over Analysis (aproximative solution)
Seismic performance Inelastic Types
of analysis
Nonlinear dynamic analysis- time history (final solution)
V
b

U
N

Push-over Curve
Load vs Deflection
U
N
F
V
b

Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Nonlinear static procedure: constant gravitational loads and
monotonically increasing lateral loads
Plastic mechanisms and P-A effects: diplacement or arc length
control
Capacity curve: Control node displacement vs base shear force
Lateral load patterns: uniform, modal, SRSS, ELF force
distribution
Estimation of the target displacement: elastic or inelastic response
spectrum for equivalent SDOF system
Performance evaluation: global and local seismic demands with
capacities of performance level.
Key elements of the push-over analysis
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Concentrated plasticity Distributed plasticity
Dimensionless plastic hinge
Interaction surface
Return mapping plasticity algorithms
Computationally efficient but limited
accuracy
Plastic zones
Force-strain curves: quasi plastic hinge approach
Stress-strain curves: fiber element approach
Plastic flow rules
High accuracy but computational expensive
Plastic hinge
Plastic zones
Elastic Elastic
Inelastic analysis models
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Flexibility-based nonlinear beam column element
Iterative method to compute inelastic response at cross-sectional level (inelasatic
flexural and axial rigidity)
Gradual yielding along the member length and within the cross sections
Distributed loads
Uniform or nonuniform (tapered) members
Variation of reinforcement bars along the member


One element/
member
3D RC Fiber Beam Column Element
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs

(NA
)
q

y

x
2 2
y x
y x
u x y u
u + u = u
u + = u + u + = q c
Arbitrary cross-sections under biaxial bending moments and axial force
Arc length icremental iterative method with tangent stiffness strategy
Greens theorem: domain integrals are evaluated in terms of boundary integrals
M-N-u curves, N-Mx-My interaction diagrams and axial force ultimate curvature

Inelastic analysis of cross-sections
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Large deflection and large rotations
Geometrical local effects (P-o) including bowing effect, shear deformations
Concentrated and distributed plasticity (fiber and M-N-u aproaches)
Consistency between linear and nonlinear models (one element/member)
Local geometrical and material imperfections
Flexible (semi-rigid) and finite joints
Complete non-linear behavior (pre and post crtical response: snap-back
and snap-through)
Model capabilities
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Elastic spectrum response: Type 1
Ground Type: A
Design ground acceleration: PGA=0.3g
Mass=40 (80) tones/level
Case study (Six story RC frame building)
60 x60
30 x50
Structural configuration
Control node
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Pushover loads mode 1 transv.
Effective modal mass=65%
Pushover loads mode 1-longit
Effective modal mass=76%
Base shear forces:
Transversal (mode 1): Fz= 348 kN
Longitudinal (mode 1):Fx= 482 kN
T1=1.5s
T1=1.27s
Seismic force evaluation
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Plastic hinge analysis Plastic zone analysis
Interaction surface equation:

Stress-strain curves for concrete and
steel bars (Eurocodes)
7 Gauss-Lobatto IP/member
-2000
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
12000
0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
Ultimate curvature
A
x
i
a
l

f
o
r
c
e

(
k
N
)
0 1
6 . 1 6 . 1
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
zp
z
py
y
M
M
M
M
8u20
30x50cm
Inelastic analysis data
16u25
60x60cm
Unconfined concrete
Confined concrete
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Plastic zone analysis Plastic hinge analysis
Pushover curves-Longitudinal direction
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00
Displacement X (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Plastic zone, Plim=1.12
Plastic hinge, Plim=1.11
Pushover analysis: Longitudinal direction
Plastic hinge: CPU time: 1.5 min
(120 load cycles)
Plastic zone: CPU time: 8.3 min
(150 load cycles)
One element/physical member
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Plastic hinge analysis Plastic zone analysis
Pushover curves-Transversal direction
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00
Displacement Z (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Plastic zone, Plim=1.21
Plastic hinge, Plim=1.11
Pushover analysis: Transversal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Bending moments Flexural rigidities
Plastic zone analysis: Longitudinal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Bending moments Flexural rigidities
Plastic zone analysis: Transversal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Pushover curves-Transversal direction
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00
Displacement Z (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r Plastic zone (modal pattern), plim=1.21
Plastic zone (unif orm acceleration), plim=1.19
Modal vs Uniform force distribution
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Pushover curves-Longitudinal direction
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00
Displacement X (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Plastic zone (modal pattern), Plim=1.12
Plastic zone (unif orm pattern),Plim=1.28
Modal vs Uniform force distribution
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Equivalent SDOF and target displacement
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Target displacements (Plastic zone)-Transversal direction
Dt=7.80 cm
Dt=15.77 cm
Dt=31.54 cm
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
1.40
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00
Displacement Z (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Computed pushover curve (plastic zone)
Idealized elaso-perf ectly plastic (EC8)
Target displacements: transversal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Target displacements (plastic hinge)-Transversal direction
7.45
14.91
29.83
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
Displacement Z (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Computed pushover curve (plastic hinge)
Idealized elasto-perf ectly plastic (EC8)
PGA=0.15g
PGA=0.3g
PGA=0.6g
Target displacements: transversal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Target displacements (plastic zone)-Longitudinal direction
11.65 cm
23.3 cm
46.64 cm
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00
Displacement X (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Computed pushover curve (plastic zone)
Idealized elasto-perf ectly plastic (EC8)
PGA=0.15g
PGA=0.3g
PGA=0.6g
Target displacements: longitudinal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Target displacements (plastic hinge)-Longitudinal direction
11.27 cm
22.54 cm
45.08 cm
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00
Displacement X (cm)
A
p
l
i
e
d

l
o
a
d

f
a
c
t
o
r
Computed pushover curve (plastic hinge)
Idealized elasto-perf ectly plastic (EC8)
PGA=0.15g
PGA=0.3g
PGA=0.6g
Target displacements longitudinal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Local seismic demands
Curvatures along the member length
-0.0150
-0.0100
-0.0050
0.0000
0.0050
0.0100
0.0150
0.0200
0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00
Member length (m)
C
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e
s
PGA=0.15g
PGA=0.3g
PGA=0.6g
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Local seismic demands
Curvatures along the member length
-0.0070
-0.0060
-0.0050
-0.0040
-0.0030
-0.0020
-0.0010
0.0000
0.0010
0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50
Member length (m)
C
u
r
v
a
t
u
r
e
s
PGA=0.15g
PGA=0.3g
PGA=0.6g
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Global seismic demands
PGA=0.15g
Dt=7.80 cm
PGA=0.3g
Dt=15.77 cm
PGA=0.6g
Dt=31.54 cm
Collapse
D=64.8 cm
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
PGA=0.3g PGA=0.6g PGA=0.15g Collapse
Plastic zone analysis
Plastic performance: Transversal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
PGA=0.3g PGA=0.6g PGA=0.15g Collapse
Plastic hinge analysis
Plastic performance: Transversal direction
2 PH
7 PH 10 PH 13 PH
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
Collapse PGA=0.15g PGA=0.3g PGA=0.6g
Plastic zone analysis
Plastic performance: Longitudinal direction
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
PGA=0.15g PGA=0.3g PGA=0.6g
Collapse
Plastic hinge analysis
Plastic performance: Longitudinal direction
7 PH 13 PH 15 PH 16 PH
Push-over analysis for seismic performance evaluation of RC frame structures. Computer programs
A computational efficient 3-D RC fiber beam-column element was
developed and implemented in a nonlinear inelastic analysis computer
program
Plastic hinge analysis: limited accuracy
A pushover example for spatial model was presented in conjunction
with EC8 provisions
Pushover analysis: good estimates of global and local inelastic
deformations demands
Limitations: for structures that vibrate primarily in the fundamental
mode
Overcomes: adaptive force distribution and modal pushover analysis
procedures
Nonlinear dynamic analysis: final solution
Concluding remarks