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CHAPTER 5

Purchase

Roger D. Blackwell, Paul W. Miniard, and James F. Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Process

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Process


Whether to buy

When to buy
What to buy (product type/brand)

Where to buy
How to pay

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Process


Fully Planned Purchase

Partially Planned Purchase


Unplanned Purchase

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why People Shop

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why People Shop


Personal Motives Social Motives

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why People Shop


Personal Motives Social Motives

Role Playing
Diversion Self-gratification

Learning about trends


Physical Activity Sensory Stimulation
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Why People Shop


Personal Motives Social Motives

Role Playing
Diversion Self-gratification

Social experience outside of home


Communication with others with similar interests Peer group attraction

Learning about trends


Physical Activity Sensory Stimulation

Status and authority


Fun of bargaining

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Decision Process

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Decision Process


Individual Characteristics Purchase Characteristics Evaluating Type of Retailer Evaluating Retail Competitors Store Choice Purchase Outcome
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluative Criteria

The Purchase Decision Process


Individual Characteristics Purchase Characteristics Evaluating Type of Retailer Evaluating Retail Competitors Store Choice Purchase Outcome
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluative Criteria

Individual Characteristics

Purchase Characteristics

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Individual Characteristics
Lifestyles Economic Variables Views of Shopping Situations

Purchase Characteristics
Types of Product Timing Variables Price/Quality Situation

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Decision Process


Individual Characteristics Purchase Characteristics Evaluating Type of Retailer Evaluating Retail Competitors Store Choice Purchase Outcome
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluative Criteria

Evaluative Criteria

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluative Criteria
Location Nature of Quality and Assortment Price Advertising and Promotion Sales Personnel Services Offered Physical Store Attributes Store Clientele Point-of-Purchase Displays Consumer Logistics
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Decision Process


Individual Characteristics Purchase Characteristics Evaluating Type of Retailer Evaluating Retail Competitors Store Choice Purchase Outcome
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluative Criteria

Evaluating Type of Retailer


Determining the type of retail concept from which to purchase

Evaluating Retail Competitors

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Type of Retailer


Determining the type of retail concept from which to purchase

Evaluating Retail Competitors

Direct mail Location-based retailer

Catalog
Internet
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Type of Retailer


Determining the type of retail concept from which to purchase

Evaluating Retail Competitors


Determining the type of competitive store from which to purchase

Direct mail Location-based retailer

Catalog
Internet
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluating Type of Retailer


Determining the type of retail concept from which to purchase

Evaluating Retail Competitors


Determining the type of competitive store from which to purchase

Direct mail Location-based retailer

Mass retailer Department store

Catalog
Internet

Specialty store
Hypermarket

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Choice
Choosing the specific retailer from which to purchase (Name and Location)

Purchase

Outcome

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Choice
Choosing the specific retailer from which to purchase (Name and Location)

Purchase

Outcome Gap or Express Nordstrom or Bloomingdales

Wal*Mart or Kmart
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Choice
Choosing the specific retailer from which to purchase (Name and Location)

Purchase
The process of securing the product

Outcome Gap or Express Nordstrom or Bloomingdales

Wal*Mart or Kmart
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Choice
Choosing the specific retailer from which to purchase (Name and Location)

Purchase
The process of securing the product

Outcome Gap or Express Nordstrom or Bloomingdales


The result of the purchase process: Satisfaction (may lead to repeat purchase and loyalty) Dissatisfaction (may influence future evaluations)

Wal*Mart or Kmart

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Purchase Decision Process


Individual Characteristics Purchase Characteristics Evaluating Type of Retailer Evaluating Retail Competitors Store Choice Purchase Outcome
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Evaluative Criteria

Determinants of Retail Success or Failure

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Determinants of Retail Success or Failure


Examining how retailers perform on specific criteria in they eyes of consumers Retailers focus on adapting these variables according to changing consumer needs and trends
Retailers strive to perform better than competitors on evaluative criteria
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Location
Physical location of store

Distance from home, office, or other point of origin


Perceived in terms of time and hassle as well Cognitive versus actual distance

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nature and Quality of Assortment


Assortment breadth: how vast or wide the variety of products sold (mass retailers)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nature and Quality of Assortment


Assortment breadth: how vast or wide the variety of products sold (mass retailers) Assortment depth: how deep the categories of product sold (specialty store)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nature and Quality of Assortment


Assortment breadth: how vast or wide the variety of products sold (mass retailers) Assortment depth: how deep the categories of product sold (specialty store) Category killers focus on one particular category and provide a deep assortment of products (Home Depot, Toys R Us)
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Price
The importance of price depends on nature of the consumer

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Price
The importance of price depends on nature of the consumer Consumers perception of price versus actual price

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Price
The importance of price depends on nature of the consumer Consumers perception of price versus actual price

Everyday Low Prices (EDLP) emphasizes low prices rather than one-time promotional prices

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Price
The importance of price depends on nature of the consumer Consumers perception of price versus actual price

Everyday Low Prices (EDLP) emphasizes low prices rather than one-time promotional prices
Lowest price versus price in acceptable or expected range
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Price
Effects of price promotions on: Brand image Retailer image Short term buying behavior Long term buying behavior

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Advertising and Promotion


Information advertising provides details about products, prices, hours of store operation, locations and other attributes that might influence purchase decisions

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Information Advertising

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Advertising and Promotion


Image advertising uses visual components and words that help consumers form an expectation about experience in the store

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Target uses image advertising to build its brand

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Advertising and Promotion


Image advertising uses visual components and worlds that help consumers form an expectation about experience in the store

Increased emphasis on image advertising


Shift toward marketing and what happens outside of the store

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sales Personnel
Sales personnel still play an important role in selecting a retailer
Sales success depends on:

-Relationship during the transaction -Persuasion strategies


Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sales Personnel
How successful or persuasive a sales person is depends on:

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sales Personnel
How successful or persuasive a sales person is depends on: Perceived knowledge and expertise

Perceived trustworthiness
Customer knowledge

Adaptability

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Sales Personnel
How successful or persuasive a sales person is depends on: Perceived knowledge and expertise

Perceived trustworthiness
Customer knowledge

Adaptability Recruiting and training effective sales associates benefits retailers


Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Services Offered: Kinkos


Copying and binding Shipping Delivery Computing

Video conferencing

24 hour operation

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Physical Store Attributes


Store atmospherics: physical properties of the retail environment designed to create an effect on consumer purchases

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Physical Store Attributes


Store atmospherics: physical properties of the retail environment designed to create an effect on consumer purchases Lighting Signage Merchandise Displays Air conditioning Floor treatments Music Colors
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Clientele
Who shops at a store affects a persons decision to shop there

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Clientele
Who shops at a store affects a persons decision to shop there Consumers tend match their selfimage with that of the store

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Clientele
Who shops at a store affects a persons decision to shop there Consumers tend match their selfimage with that of the store

Do consumers feel comfortable with other shoppers in the store?

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Store Clientele
Who shops at a store affects a persons decision to shop there Consumers tend match their selfimage with that of the store

Do consumers feel comfortable with other shoppers in the store?


What effect does clientele have on store image?

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Point-of-Purchase Materials
POP displays help gain attention inside the store

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Point-of-Purchase Materials
POP displays help gain attention inside the store Advantages of POP displays: Less expensive form of promotion Can compensate for fewer sales persons on the floor

Provide valuable information

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Consumer Logistics
Consumer Logistics: focuses on the speed and ease with which consumers move through the retail and entire shopping process Examines how factors such as signage, lighting, aisle width, and parking affect the purchase process

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Consumer Logistics
Stages of Consumer Logistics Preparation Arriving at the store Entering the store Moving through the store Checkout Going home and storage Inventory replenishment What factors affect each stage?
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Location-based Retailing Retailers that have a physical store and location for consumers to visit Can be housed in shopping malls and strip centers or can be free-standing

Some location-based retailers also have catalogs or Internet outlets available


Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Location-based Retailing Value-oriented retailers
-efficiency in supply chain lowers cost for retailer -economies of scale and volume buying allow retailers to pass cost savings to customers -quality products and image advertising have changed perception of mass retailers
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Location-based Retailing The Shopping Mall
-People spending less time in shopping malls -Malls are emphasizing the entertainment value of shopping -Shift toward making malls become places people want to be, not just where they want to shop

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Direct Marketing Retail sales that occur someplace other than in the store More consumer shopping and buying activities are occurring outside the store Convenient for people not able to get to stores during store hours

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Direct Marketing Direct selling: any form of faceto-face contact between a salesperson and a customer away from a fixed retail location -door-to-door selling -in-home parties

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Direct Marketing Direct selling: any form of faceto-face contact between a salesperson and a customer away from a fixed retail location -door-to-door selling -in-home parties Direct mail ads

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Direct Marketing Direct selling: any form of faceto-face contact between a salesperson and a customer away from a fixed retail location -door-to-door selling -in-home parties Direct mail ads Direct mail catalogs
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Direct Marketing Telemarketing -outbound telemarketing -inbound telemarketing (1-800 numbers)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


Direct Marketing Telemarketing -outbound telemarketing -inbound telemarketing (1-800 numbers) Direct response ads: ads that require a direct response from consumers
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


E-Commerce

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

The Changing Retail Landscape


E-Commerce Technology of electronic retailing determines what can be offered to consumers, but only consumers determine which technologies (or buying methods) will succeed Today, more people use the Internet for search and prepurchase evaluation than purchase
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Consumer Resources: What People Spend When They Purchase

Money

Attention

Time

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


People have unlimited money budgets: have potential to earn as much money as they want

Money (unlimited)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


People have unlimited money budgets: have potential to earn as much money as they want People have limited time budgets: maximum of 24 hours per day
Money (unlimited)

Time (24 hours)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


As people work and make more money, leisure time decreases-leading to increased value of time Timestyles: determines how consumers allocate their time

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


Time-using Goods

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


Time-using Goods
Goods that require time to use, such as television or sporting equipment or events As consumer have less leisure time, they are often willing to spend more money to make the most of the leisure time they do have (travel or extreme sports)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


Time-saving Goods

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


Time-saving Goods
Goods that decrease nondiscretionary time expenditures (such as chores) Housecleaning services or dish washers free up time to spend on leisure or other activities Some firms position products with time-saving benefits

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


Time Prices

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Time and Money Budgets


Time Prices
Products have economic prices as well as time prices How much time it takes to shop for, install, or use a product

Firms sometimes use time prices in their ads (only takes 1 hour to install or deodorant takes 10 seconds to dry)

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Polychronic Time Use


Polychronic time involves combining activities simultaneously

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Polychronic Time Use


Polychronic time involves combining activities simultaneously

Trend has given rise to products:


cellular phones (talk and walk or drive) fastfood (eat and drive) dentist beepers (wait for appointment and shop)

prepared meals (shop for groceries and buy completed dinner at same store)
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Resources
Cognitive resources: mental capacity available for undertaking information-processing activities

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Resources
Cognitive resources: mental capacity available for undertaking information-processing activities Capacity: cognitive resources that an individual has available at any given time for processing information

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Resources
Cognitive resources: mental capacity available for undertaking information-processing activities Capacity: cognitive resources that an individual has available at any given time for processing information

How much of this resource do consumers spend when shopping or making a purchase?
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Resources
Attention: allocation of cognitive resources

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Resources
Attention: allocation of cognitive resources In addition to paying money and time for purchases, consumers also pay attention
Direction: focus of attention Intensity: the amount of capacity focused in a particular direction Role in advertising, POP displays, and care and use instructions
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive Resources
Information overload may occur if too much information is provided, and it exceeds capacity What happens if too much information is included on package? Do consumers make poor decisions or stop processing?

How much attention do consumers give to various products and purchases?


Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Communicating with Consumers: Integrated Marketing Communications

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)


Coordinated marketing activities that often promote a brand and ultimately purchase activity Internet strategies can be integrated into the IMC program by having a similar look, feel, and message as other promotion elements

Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)


IMC programs are comprehensive IMC programs are unified IMC programs are targeted IMC programs have coordinated execution of all the communications components of the organization IMC programs emphasize productivity in reaching targets when selecting communication channels and allocating resources
Blackwell, Miniard, and Engel, Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, Copyright 2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.

Consumer Behavior
Roger D. Blackwell Paul W. Miniard James F. Engel
Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to the following address: Permissions Department, Harcourt, Inc. 6277 Sea Harbor Drive Orlando, Florida 32887-6777 Copyright2001 by Harcourt, Inc. All rights reserved.