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Quality Function Deployment


Technical Story
Imagine that two engineers within the same

company are working on two different components of a car sunroof simultaneously but separately. The insulation and sealing engineer develops a new seal that will keep out rain, even during blinding rainstorm . The handles, knobs, and levers engineer is working on a simpler lever that will make the roof easier to open.

Technical Story-cont.
The new lever is tested and works well with the old seal. Neither

engineer is aware of the activities of the other .As it turns out, the combination of heavier roof (due to the increased insulation) and lighter lever means that the driver can no longer open the sunroof with one hand Hopefully, the problem will be detected in prototype testing before the car is put into production. At that point, one or both components will need to be redesigned. Otherwise, cars already produced will need to be reworked and cars already sold will have to be recalled. None of these alternatives is pleasant and they all involve considerable cost. Could such problems be avoided if engineers worked in teams and shared information? Probably not! Even in design teams, there is no guarantee that all decisions will be coordinated.

Technical Story-cont.
A formal method is thus needed for making sure that everyone

working on a design project knows the design objectives and aware of the interrelationships of the various parts of the design. Similar communications are needed between the customer and marketing, between marketing and engineering, between engineering and production, and between production and the worker In a nutshell, a structured process is needed that will translate the voice of the customer to technical requirements at every stage of design and manufacture. Such a process is called Quality Function Deployment.

What is QFD?
A method of transferring customer needs and

requirements into technical specifications for new product and service development.

Quality Function Deployment

Hin Shitsu Ki No Ten Kai
"A group of courageous people working in harmony pursuing the finest

detail to unlock the organization and roll out products that the multitudes in the marketplace will value." Glenn Mazur

Quality Function Deployment

Is a structured method that is intended to transmit and

translate customer requirements, that is, the Voice of the Customer through each stage of the product development and production process, that is, through the product realization cycle. These requirements are the collection of customer needs, including all satisfiers, exciters/delighters, and dissatisfiers.

Brief History of QFD

Origin - Mitsubishi Kobe Shipyard 1972

Developed By Toyota and Its Suppliers Expanded To Other Japanese Manufacturers Consumer Electronics, Home Appliances, Clothing, Integrated

Circuits, Apartment Layout Planning Adopted By Ford and GM in 1980s Digital Equipment, Hewlett-Packard, AT&T, ITT

Foundation - Belief That Products Should Be Designed

To Reflect Customer Desires and Tastes

Goal =

The house of quality is used as a tool to meet customer demands and understand customer requirements

Decision Analysis Provides Focus

What Does QFD Do?


Better Designs in Half the Time!





Traditional Timeline
Design Redesign Manufacture


QFD Is a Productivity Enhancer

Return on Investment from Using QFD

Companies using QFD to reflect "The Voice of the Customer" in defining quality have a competitive advantage because there is/are:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Fewer and Earlier Design Changes Fewer Start-up Problems Shorter Development Time Lower Start-up Costs Warranty Cost Reductions Knowledge Transfer to the Next Product Customer Satisfaction

Minimizes product development costs. Reduces the risk of delay to new product introduction due to potentially

poor specifications.
Provides a much deeper insight in (latent) customer needs from a broad

range of sources and allows sharp priority setting of the various customer needs.
Enables proactive focus on customer needs early in the design stage. Creates a joint language and communication platform for marketing,

R&D and production to logically combine their inputs.

Greatly increases the effectiveness and efficiency of innovation and

increases customer satisfaction, revenue and overall productivity.


Greater likelihood of product success in the marketplace, due to the

precise targeting of key customer requirements

Reduced overall design cycle time, mainly due to a reduction in

time-consuming design changes. This is a powerful benefit: customer requirements are less likely to have changed since the beginning of the design project; and more frequent design cycles mean that products can be improved more rapidly than the competition
Reduced overall cost due to reducing design changes, which are not

only time consuming but very costly, especially those which occur at a late stage.
Reduced product cost by eliminating redundant features and over-


Quality Function Deployments House of Quality



2 1

Importance Rankings

The House of Quality

Design Attributes
5 4

Customer Needs

Relationships between Customer Needs and Design Attributes

Customer Perceptions

Establishes the Flowdown Relates WHAT'S & HOW'S Ranks The Importance


Engineering Measures

The Four Houses of Quality

Common QFD Pitfalls

QFD On Everything Set the Right Granularity Dont Apply To Every Last Project Inadequate Priorities Lack of Teamwork Wrong Participants Lack of Team Skills Lack of Support or Commitment Too Much Chart Focus Hurry up and Get Done Failure to Integrate and Implement QFD

Review Current Status At Least Quarterly Monthly on 1 Yr Project Weekly on Small Projects







40 psi

Need 1 Need 2 Need 3 Need 4 Need 5 Need 6 Need 7

5 5 3 4 2 4 1



3 mils

65 45 21 36 8

12 in.

1 mm 8 atm


The Static QFD


57 41 48 13 50

3 lbs


IMPROVING MOBILE SERVICES DESIGN A QFD APPROACH In todays information society the whole world is going wireless and mobile.
However, a key challenge in mobile services industry is how

to design and develop high quality mobile services which means how to satisfy end customers or even to exceed their expectation.
One of the most powerful quality improving methodologies

is the Quality Function Deployment (QFD).



The University of Oulu is currently designing mobile e-

learning services for university students.

electronic classroom teaching based on innovative mobile

instant learning technologies and tools and e-learning methodology and scenarios appropriate to a community of e-learning students in northern Finland

One application of e-learning services is to have access to

daily classroom lectures through hand-set mobile terminals such as mobile phones or dedicated personal digital assistants (PDAs) or computers.
This way students from different locations in the country

may participate the lecture, ask questions to the lecturer through the use of mobile terminals, even when they are on the move.
Currently this e-learning service is being developed in the

Students and lecturers are connected through classroom

computer servers and individual mobile terminals.


3.1 Identification of VOC

3.2 Identification of Technical Characteristics

Seven technical characteristics are identified, i.e. network coverage, data transmission speed, display resolution, terminal costs,

network access cost per time unit, terminal size and weight, and power consumption.

With the aid of QFD cost analysis for both

mobile service providers and potential service users, the mobile service design and development team can determine which quality characteristics should be included in the first version of the service and which to be included in subsequent generation mobile services. The results will be the cost and time effective mobile services that best satisfy both mobile service providers and service users.

Points to Remember

The process may look simple, but requires effort. Many entries look obviousafter theyre written down. If there are NO tough spots the first time: It Probably Isnt Being Done Right!!!! Focus on the end-user customer. Charts are not the objective. Charts are the means for achieving the objective. Find reasons to succeed, not excuses for failure. Remember to follow-up afterward

Quality Function Deployment


Every successful company has always used data and

information to help in its planning processes.

In planning a new product, engineers have always examined

the manufacturing and performance history of the current product.

They look at field test data, comparing their product to that of

their competitors product. They examine any customer satisfaction information that might happen to be available.
Unfortunately, much of this information is often incomplete. It

is frequently examined as individual data, without comparison to other data that may support or contradict it.

House of Quality
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) uses a matrix format

to capture a number of issues that are vital to the planning process.

The House of Quality Matrix is the most recognized and

widely used form of this method.

A kind of conceptual map that provides the means for interfunctional planning and communication.

House of Quality
It translates customer requirements, based on marketing

research and benchmarking data, into an appropriate number of engineering targets to be met by a new product design.
Basically, it is the nerve center and the engine that drives

the entire QFD process.

House of Quality appeared in 1972 in the design of an oil

tanker by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

Structure of House of Quality

Exterior walls

Customer Requirements

Ceiling or second floor

Technical Descriptor Relationship between Customer requirements and technical descriptors

Interior Walls


Interrelationship between technical descriptors.

Structure of House Of Quality

Interrelationship between Technical Descriptors Technical Descriptors (Voice of the organization) Customer Requirements (Voice of the Customer) Prioritized Customer Requirements

Relationship between Requirements and Descriptors Prioritized Technical Descriptors

Building A House Of Quality

List Customer Requirements (Whats)
List Technical Descriptors (Hows) Develop Relationship (Whats & Hows) Develop Interrelationship (Hows) Competitive Assessments Prioritize Customer Requirements Prioritize Technical Descriptors

Customer Requirements(WHATS)
The initial steps in forming the House of Quality include

determining, clarifying, and specifying the customers needs

Termed as Voice of Customer It generally describes WHAT does the customer expect

from a certain product or service

Customer need are divided into two things:
Primary requirements Secondary requirements

Technical Descriptors (HOWs)

The next step of the QFD process is identifying what the

customer wants and what must be achieved to satisfy these wants.

Termed as Voice of the Engineers or Designers


In addition, regulatory standards and requirements

dictated by management must be identified.

Once all requirements are identified it is important to

answer what must be done to the product design to fulfill the necessary requirements.

Relationship Matrix between WHATs and HOWs

Compare the customer requirements and technical descriptors and

determine their respective relationship.

Correlates how HOWs satisfy WHATs The main purpose of the planning matrix is to compare how well the

team met the customer requirements compared to its competitors.

Structuring an L-shaped diagram. This is meant to reduce the

confusion associated with determining the relationship between customer requirements and technical descriptors.
Symbolic notation are used for depicting weak, medium, and strong


Relationship Matrix
Technical Descriptors Primary Secondary Secondary Primary

Customer Requirements

Relationship between Customer Requirements and Technical Descriptors WHATs vs. HOWs
+9 +3 +1 Strong Medium Weak

OK, Lets Walk Through A Simple Example

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Customer Request: There is too much damage to bumpers in low-speed collisions. Customer wants a better bumper.

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Step 1: Identify Customer(s)
Repair Department

Automobile Owner
Manufacturing Plant Sales Force

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Step 2: Determine Customer Requirements/Constraints
I want something that looks nice (basic)

It must hold my license plate (performance)

I want it strong enough not to dent (excitement) It must protect my tail-lights and head-lights

(performance) I dont want to pay too much (basic)

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Step 3: Prioritize Customer Requirements

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Put prioritized Customer Requirements into a House of Quality Chart

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Step 4: Competition Benchmarking
Identify Competitors Test and Analyze Competitor Products

Reverse Engineer Competitor Products

Rate Competitor Products against customer


QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Put competitive benchmarking information into
House of Quality Chart

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Steps 5 and 6: Translate Customer Requirements into Measurable Engineering Specifications and define target values
Specify how license plate will be held
Specify how to resist dents through material yield

strength, young's modulus, etc. Specify with a dollar amount the term inexpensive

QFD Example An Automobile Bumper

Quality Function Deployment


STEP 4: Developing an interrelationship matrix between HOWs

The roof of the House of Quality is known as

the Correlation matrix. Different symbols are used to describe the strength and the direction of the interrelationships
a strong positive relationship a positive relationship

a negative relationship

a strong negative relationship

STEP 5: Competitive Assessments

A pair of weighted tables that depict how

competitive products compare with our current products.

Customer Competitive Assessment;
lists down all the customer requirements that have been successfully incorporated in product design Helps in identifying the gaps in order to ensure concentration in those areas

Technical Competitive Assessment;

covers the technical side of the production process by helping in identifying gaps in engineering judgment.

The ratings are given in the form of numbers 1-5

STEP 6: Develop Prioritized Customer Requirements

Prioritized customer requirements include;
Importance to customer
ratings given by QFD team or a focus group depicting the relative importance of each customer requirement

Target value
the decision regarding product improvement and maintenance by the QFD team

Scale-up factor
Target Value/ Product Rating

Sales point
how well a customer requirement will sell

Absolute weight
(Importance to Customer)(Scale-up Factor)(Sales Point)

STEP 7: Develop Prioritized Technical Descriptors

Prioritized technical descriptors contain the following;
Degree of Technical Difficulty the degree of technical difficulty in implementing each of the technical descriptors Target Value objective measure of value that must be obtained to achieve the technical descriptors Absolute Weight (Dot product of the column in the relationship matrix)(column for importance to customers) Relative Weight

(Dot product of the column in the relationship matrix)(Absolute weight in the prioritized customers requirements)


Presented By: Farah Fayyaz (8942)

Refining Process




Phase I: Product Planning

Led by the marketing department, Phase 1, or product planning, is also called The House of Quality. Many organizations only get through this phase of a QFD process. Phase 1 documents customer requirements, warranty data, competitive opportunities, product measurements, competing product measures, and the technical ability of the organization to meet each customer requirement. Getting good data from the customer in Phase 1 is critical to the success of the entire QFD process.

Phase II: Product Design

This phase 2 is led by the engineering department. Product design requires creativity and innovative team ideas. Product concepts are created during this phase and part specifications are documented. Parts that are determined to be most important to meeting customer needs are then deployed into process planning, or Phase 3.

Phase III: Process Planning

Process planning comes next and is led by manufacturing engineering. During process planning, manufacturing processes are flowcharted and process parameters (or target values) are documented.

Phase IV: Process Control

And finally, in production planning, performance indicators are created to monitor the production process, maintenance schedules, and skills training for operators. Also, in this phase decisions are made as to which process poses the most risk and controls are put in place to prevent failures. The quality assurance department in concert with manufacturing leads Phase 4.

QFD Summary
Orderly Way Of Obtaining Information & Presenting

It Shorter Product Development Cycle Considerably Reduced Start-Up Costs Fewer Engineering Changes Reduced Chance Of Oversights During Design Process Environment Of Teamwork Consensus Decisions Preserves Everything In Writing