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In the 1980s or early 1990s, the operating system that shipped with most PCs was a version of the Disk Operating System (DOS) created by Microsoft: MS-DOS.
MS-DOS is a disk operating system for IBM PC–compatible computers.
In its day, it was easily the most popular operating system in the world. It also is the basis from which Windows 9x derives its under-lying organization.
and providing the user interface. .MS-DOS As with any other operating system. its function is to oversee the operation of the system by providing support for executing programs. controlling I/O devices. handling errors.
These qualities make it one of the easiest disk operating systems to understand. single-task operating system. .MS-DOS MS-DOS is a disk-based. singleuser.
hidden system files . IO. and COMMAND.SYS are special.SYS. MSDOS.COM files.MS-DOS The main portions of MSDOS are the IO.SYS.SYS and MSDOS.
for various hardware components.SYS file moves the system’s basic I/O functions into memory and then implements the MS-DOS default control programs. These include the following: The boot disk drive The console display and keyboard The system’s time-of-day clock .MS-DOS The IO. referred to as device drivers.
SYS file provides default support features for software applications. These features include the following: Memory management Character input and output Real-time clock access File and record management Execution of other programs .MS-DOS The MSDOS.
COM command interpreter accepts commands issued through the keyboard.MS-DOS The COMMAND. and carries them out according to the commands definition. or other input device. .
it passes control back to the command interpreter.COM finds the program. and then gives it control of the system. loads it into memory. When the program is shut down. . COMMAND.MS-DOS When DOS runs an application.
and copying files (XCOPY). such as formatting disks (FORMAT). . printing files (PRINT).MS-DOS The remainder of the operating system is comprised of utility programs to carry out DOS operations.
it didn’t contain any network software.EXE was designed as an add-on to popular networking software that allowed two users to edit the same file at the same time on a network. SHARE. stand-alone. To that end. .MS-DOS When MS-DOS was developed. except SHARE.EXE. operating system. it was designed to be a simple.
EXE .EXE installed. they got an error message.MS-DOS Without SHARE. when the second user tried to open the file. when a second user tried to open a file that the first user had opened. they received a message saying that the file was being used by someone else and offering to provide a copy of the file. With SHARE. .
For example.MS-DOS Another aspect of networking with MS-DOS is that DOS can run client software for Novell and Microsoft networks. it was . you were really saving that file to a server. as far as DOS was concerned. you could point a DOS drive letter to some disk space on the network. Most client software for DOS falls into the category of redirection software. This software redirects requests bound for local resources out to network resources. When you saved a file to that drive letter. But. with network client software installed.
MS-DOS MS-DOS Versions Next we will look at the evolution of the MS-DOS operating system and will examine the major changes in microcomputer architecture and standards that are reflected in each revision. .
a ―no-frills‖ operating system. a revision—DOS 1. It had no provisions for networking.MS-DOS MS-DOS 1 The original version of MS-DOS was. and had limited ability to manage system resources. Approximately a year after the release of DOS 1. did not include any sort of graphical shell program. . to put it mildly.0.1— added support for double-sided 320KB floppy drives.
a serial interface. and three additional expansion slots. The XT featured a 10MB hard drive. IBM introduced the IBM PC XT. . It also had 128KB of RAM and a 360KB floppy drive (40KB more capacity than that of single-sided floppies on the previous PC) and could support a 10MB internal hard drive.MS-DOS MS-DOS 2 In early 1983.
0 supported hard drives larger than 10MB. DOS 3. .2.3—provided additional innovations. Microsoft continued to include additional DOS features and to support more powerful hardware. as well as enhanced graphics formats.1. 3. Three revisions—3.MS-DOS MS-DOS 3 With DOS 3.0. released in summer 1984. and 3.
1 was notable because it featured the first DOS support for networking. .MS-DOS Version 3. The IBM PC Network was a simple local area network structure that was similar to today’s workgroup networks.
and it made important modifications to other DOS commands. enabling the user to identify more than one file at a time to be copied. It was also the first version to support IBM’s Token Ring network topology and the first to allow for 720KB 3.5 Inch floppies.MS-DOS DOS 3. .2 introduced the XCOPY command.
MS-DOS Version3.44MB floppy disks. and a single machine could support both a primary and a secondary partition on each disk. Logical partition sizes could be up to 32MB. introduced in 1987. offered additional enhancements to numerous existing commands and introduced support for 1.3. .
The DOS Shell even supported a mouse.MS-DOS MS-DOS 4 By 1988 it was apparent that the wave of the future was the graphical interface. a utility much like the Windows File Manager. and do routine maintenance. all from a single screen. and DOS 4 provided users with the DOS Shell. Actually. DOS Shell was simply a scaled-down version of Windows that allowed users to manage files. run programs. .
COM. This feature allowed more complex DOS programs. The most commonly used utility introduced at this time was EDIT. the ability to load drivers into reserved (upper) memory was a relief to those people who were constantly running out of conventional memory. Several software utilities made their debut. First of all.0.MS-DOS MS-DOS 5 There were several important features introduced in the 1991 release of DOS 5. Also added were .
As of this date.22 is the most current MS-DOS version available as a stand-alone operating system. Another enhancement in DOS 6.EXE. . DOS 6.0 was EMM386. DOS 6. which allowed the system to pool extended and expanded memory.MS-DOS MS-DOS 6 Released in 1993 to excellent sales.0 offered a number of new commands and configurable options.0 has subsequently been revised a number of times. DOS 6.