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Design of Inverter Driven Induction Machines

Daniel M. Saban, PE PhD saban@ieee.org

Overview • The induction machine problem – Stakeholders & design drivers – Analysis & synthesis challenges – Design rules-of-thumb & constraints • Optimization and/or synthesis – Common tools – Selected approaches – Inverter system consideration • Opportunities 2 .

analysis and optimization tools • Size & Topology 3 .Induction machine • Stakeholders and their perspectives – – – – – Customers Sales & Marketing Manufacturing Engineering & Operations Application Engineering Product Development • Opportunities – Materials: improved and exotic – Manufacturing processes and process control – Design.

power factor – Initial cost: better material. more material • Quality “is everything” • Performance “is everything”? 4 .Induction machine • Temperature “is everything” – Material limits (life) • Insulation system • Bearing system – Material dependencies (performance) – Cooling system – Rules-of-thumb in design • Cost “is everything” – Operating cost: efficiency.

core losses Winding harmonics Rotor/Stator slotting & skewing Material property variation (lot-to-lot) Dimensional variation & shift Manufacturing/assembly variation Rotor resistance End-leakage (consider frame) High-frequency impedance (bearing currents) 5 .IM analysis challenges • • • • • • • • • Non-linear: saturation.

0 kW loss/pole • 4 turns per coil. 4.5 kW loss/pole 6 .Proximity & Skin Effect • Fundamental current injected into conductors • 1 turn per coil. 2.

Slot Ripple Eddy Current • • • • Current Sheet used to simulate total air-gap flux density No current injected into conductors Loss is due to induced eddy currents Used to analyze effect of wire transposition and aspect ratio 7 .

IM design synthesis • Clean sheet – Single application – Product family • Existing laminations • Brute Hp vs. finesse 8 .

thickness 9 . grade. coils. rotor/stator Lamination material.IM design synthesis challenges • Knowns – Full stator slots – High conductivity conductors – Small gap? • Unknowns – Rotor & stator aspect ratios – Slot shape details – Discrete values only • • • • • Pole count Discrete wire sizes. non-linear cost function Winding details: number of turns. pitch Integral numbers of slots.

5T to 0.7T. yoke – ~1.8T 10 .Rules-of-thumb • Stator current density – 620 A/cm2 to 1 kA/cm2 – Highly dependant on cooling system – Revise after thermal modeling • Peak flux density of stator teeth.6T – Revise upward for more power density – Revise lower for higher efficiency • Rotor current density • Gap flux density: 0. ~1.

Common Design Constraints • • • • • Rotor OD Stator OD Stack length Machine construction Cooling system 11 .

IM design iteration design constraints mfg constraints matl props objectives LP FE Manual Iteration 12 .

(Flux. Easy 5 13 . RMxprt (Ansoft) MCM: ?? FE: Magnet (Infolytica).IM design tools • In-house – Typically only lumped parameter (LP) – May be tied to manufacturing or operations – Some “special” versions of commercial software • Commercial – – – – – LP: PC-IMD (SPEED). VICA (support?) LP+FE: PC-IMD/FEA (SPEED). Maxwell) Ansys/Ansoft System simulation: Matlab/Simulink. Simplorer (Ansoft).

IM design optimization design constraints mfg constraints matl props objectives stand input file stand output file LP geom trans MCM FE addl output files Optimization engine 14 .

max speed. ignore details & discrete values Create response surface & narrow search space Optimize rotor and stator separately Second pass takes into account discrete values Requires dedicated code • Key design points: torque corner point. max torque • Best motor will deliver maximum torque for maximum drive current 15 .IM design optimization • Inverter driven machines – Pole count is now a free variable – Stator & Rotor lamination design optimization can be decoupled – Skewing penalizes machine • Finesse approach – – – – – Size machine.

IM-Inverter system optimization • Max torque-speed envelope (output) – different than constant torque/power/slip – power factor and efficiency variations • Optimal motor leakage – Harmonic ripple current – Chopping frequency – Fundamental AC current – Peak transistor frequency 16 .

large copper crosssection.Opportunity • Simple tools – When to apply vs. stator od. high frequency • Vehicle to adapt academic work into industrial setting – Open source – Widespread use – Extensible framework 17 . rotor od – Fit of test data for lamination family. other technologies (IM vs. or single design • Models of different manufacturing techniques/defects • Stray load loss .rotor/stator harmonic interaction • Stator conductor eddy currents. PM) – Rough sizing: stack length.