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IMPROVING ENGLISH IMPLICIT GRAMMAR KNOWLEDGE UNSING SEMANTICOSYNTACTIC TRANSLATION PRACTICE

Futuh Handoyo
Politeknik Negeri Malang, Indonesia TEFLIN Journal, vol. 21, no. 21, August 2010

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Ronald Winda Ratih Anissa Fastha

BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

The students’ low grammar competence

Their idiosyncratic communicative strategy

RESEARCH PROBLEM

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study was to improve the students’ implicit grammar knowledge using strategy of altering their mode of translation from word for word translation into L1 sense to L2 form translation.

METHOD
Research design: Classroom Action Research (CAR) The subjects: one class consisting 26 students in the first year of the Accounting students of State Polytechnic of Malang Topics taught: Verbs Be vs. Full Verbs, Modal Auxiliary, Negative, Yes-No Questions, and Wh-Question

Instrument: 1) Timed Test, 2) Questionnaire

CRITERIA OF SUCCESS

The researcher was said to be successful when the subjects’ implicit grammar competence improved to such a degree that 60% of the students were able to orally translate Indonesian sentences, short dialogue, and short text into English at least 70% accurate with the speed of 70% of the speed of formal speech, counted in w.p.m. (words per minute)

RESEARCH PROCEDURE

The activity was only focused to design the general procedure of instruction which consists of three main stages:

1. Upgrading explicit grammar knowledge

2. Internalizing the knowledge into implicit grammar knowledge

3. Testing the goal attainment

STAGE I
Purpose:
to ensure that students had explicit grammar knowledge for all topics

Activities:

Material presentation by the teacher Written practice (translating Indonesian sentences written on a piece of paper into written English)

The scores collected are regarded as formative data to determine whether they could continue to the following topic in the next meeting or not.

STAGE II
Purpose:
to make sure that the technique worked and come to a practice of a good form

Activities:
Students spontaneously translated the meaning expressed in various style of Indonesian sentences into standard English with gradually increased speed along the stage

The scores collected were used as a baseline to be compared with their scores in the next meeting to see whether or not the technique worked.

STAGE III

Purpose:
to monitor whether the goal was achieve or not

Activities:
recording the students’ performance

The data collected showed that the goal was achieve, the research was declared to succeed and could come to the end.

FINDINGS

Description of the implementation process, the collected data, and their analysis

FINDING – FIRST STAGE

 The scores collected are regarded as formative data to determine whether they could continue to the following topic in the next meeting or not  Done in seven meeting: Each topic is done in one meeting, only the first topic “Be and Full verbs” needed extra meeting.

FINDING – SECOND STAGE

 Done in four meetings to internalize students’ explicit grammar knowledge.  The result showed that out of 26 students, 23 increased, 2 decreased, and 1 leveled.  The mean of the scores increased from 59.26 to 77.88 with t-value 5.386 significant at the level of .0005 (one tailed) which was higher than critical value of 3.725

FINDING – THIRD STAGE

 First testing stage: orally translating written materials -> eleven students whose accuracy scores were 70 or more  Because criteria of success was not met, next internalization practice was done in the form of oral translation practice in two meetings.  Second testing stage: orally translating written materials -> sixteen students whose accuracy scores were 70 or more

THE DATA COLLECTED

• The criteria of success for accuracy was met: the mean of the scores increased from 63.74 to 72.07 with t-value 2.789 at the level of .005 (one tailed) in which critical t-value is 2.787 • Concerning the speed, their scores decreased from 48.73 w.p.m. to 39.19 w.p.m. • All the students who met the criteria for accuracy could meet the criteria for the speed as well.

GENERAL ACTUAL STAGES OF THE IMPLEMENTATION

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

Upgrading conscious understanding (7 meetings)

QUESTIONNAIRE - Students’ Response to the Use of the Translation Technique

 Whether or not the use of the technique should be continued for the next semester: 25 students agree  Whether there was any topic under study which had never been discussed in their previous education level: 26 students negate  Whether they got some progress: 25 students agree

QUESTIONNAIRE - Students’ Response to the Use of the Translation Technique

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Students’ progress: They felt more confidence with the sentences they made They could get more vocabularies They no need to study every time there was time.

REFLECTION

Reflection was done not to design a new revised procedure for a new cycle but to increase its effectiveness for future use.

Two things worth reflecting:
Oral internalization activity was required before the goal attainment suggests that the activity need to be more optimized

The job of students are not only involve upgrading conscious grammar knowledge and internalizing the knowledge but also deactivating their previous unacceptable implicit grammar knowledge needs to be taken into account

DISCUSSION

The result f the study indicates:
 For practical teaching purposes, conscious and subconscious sub grammar knowledge.  Translation constitute a potential and legitimate strategy when done properly

CONVERTIBILITY OF EXPLICIT INTO IMPLICIT GRAMMAR

• There is need to integrate controlled practice and exposure if grammar is to function in authentic communication.

LEGITIMACY OF TRANSLATION IN EFL

- Translation done by the learners is less legitimated, however, don’t block them but go through them. - Translation for teaching for purposes should be made, at least, to semantic level.

CONCLUSION

• Semantico-syntactic translation practice appears to be an effective strategy to develop subconscious grammar competence. • The researcher elaborate the strategy done.

SUGGESTION

For Teacher

For the Designers of English Curriculum

For Language Teaching Researcher

 it is suggested to use semanticosyntactic translation to internalize explicit grammar into implicit grammar

 to consider including intensive
grammar instruction, at least, to a certain degree

 to conduct a follow up research
that seeks to develop subconscious grammar competence to a degree that it can underline the learners’ language in natural and authentic communicative performance